Learning ObjectiveRecognize the chemical ethics of condensation reactions together they relate come polymerization.

You are watching: A dehydration reaction (or condensation reaction) is the process in which

Key PointsDuring condensation reaction, two molecules integrate to type a single molecule through the loss of a little molecule; in dehydration reaction, this shed molecule is water.Intermolecular condensation occurs in between two different molecules, if intramolecular condensation is the union in between atoms or groups of the exact same molecule, frequently leading to ring formation.Condensation reaction are provided in condensation polymerization, once a collection of condensation steps type long chains; this reaction might be one of two people a homopolymerization of a solitary monomer or a copolymerization of 2 co-monomers; many biological transformations are condensation reactions.
Termscondensation polymerizationa polymerization system in which monomers reaction to form dimers first, then trimers, longer oligomers, and eventually long chain polymerscondensation reactionany reaction in which 2 molecules react through the result loss of a water molecule (or other small molecule); the formal turning back of hydrolysisdehydration reactionan removed (condensation) reaction in which the tiny molecule the is removed is water

In a condensation reaction, two molecules or components thereof combine, release a little molecule. As soon as this little molecule is water, the is well-known as a dehydration reaction. Other possible lost molecules include hydrogen chloride, methanol, and also acetic acid.

When two different molecules react, your condensation is termed intermolecular. A an easy example is the condensation of 2 amino mountain to kind a peptide. This reaction instance is the reverse of hydrolysis, which splits a chemical entity right into two parts through action from the polar water molecule, which itself splits right into hydroxide and also hydrogen ions.

Peptide bond formed throughout condensation reactionThe condensation (dehydration) of two amino acids to form a peptide link (red) through expulsion that water (blue).

When a condensation is performed in between different components of the very same molecule, the reaction is termed intramolecular condensation; in countless cases, this leader to ring formation. An instance is the Dieckmann condensation, in i m sorry the two ester groups of a single diester molecule react through each other to shed a tiny alcohol molecule and type a β-ketoester product.

Many condensation reactions follow a nucleophilic acyl substitution or an aldol condensation reaction system (see previous ide for more information). Other condensations, such together the acyloin condensation, are triggered by radical conditions.

Condensation Polymerization Reactions

In one kind of polymerization reaction, a collection of condensation actions takes place through which monomers or monomer chains add to each other to form longer chains. This is termed “condensation polymerization,” or “step-growth polymerization,” and occurs in such processes as the synthesis of polyesters or nylons. Nylon is a silky material used come make clothes made that repeating units connected by amide bonds, and is commonly referred to as polyamide. This reaction may be one of two people a homopolymerization of a solitary monomer A-B through two different end teams that condense, or a copolymerization of 2 co-monomers A-A and B-B. Tiny molecules space usually liberated in this condensation steps, unequal polyaddition reactions.

Condensation of diacid and also diamineThe condensation the a diacid and diamine is an example of A-B polymerization.

Condensation polymers frequently require heat, kind slower than do enhancement polymers, and also are lower in molecular weight. This kind of reaction is used as a basis for making numerous important polymers, such as nylon, polyester, and various epoxies. That is likewise the basis for the laboratory formation of silicates and polyphosphates. Many organic transformations, such as polypeptide synthesis, polyketide synthesis, terpene syntheses, phosphorylation, and glycosylations are condensations.

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Nylon molecule structureNylon is a fabricated polymer developed by condensation polymerization.

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