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The procedure of cabinet division, throughout which one cell gives rise to two similar daughter cells, is referred to as mitosis. The procedure of mitosis is vital to life: that provides brand-new cells for growth and also replaces old and also dying cells. Although every cells have the right to divide, only somatic cell (any cell type except germ, or sex, cells) in eukaryotes undergo mitosis. (See also cell.)

The term mitosis technically refers to the duplication and separation of the parental cell’s chromosomes; the subsequent department of the cell membrane, giving rise to two daughter cells, is called cytokinesis. However, because cytokinesis automatically follows the mitotic duplication and separation that the chromosomes, the hatchet mitosis is usually used to define the merged events.

Just together all living things have a life cycle, so also does a cell. The life bike of the cell, well-known simply together the cell cycle, deserve to be divided generally into 2 stages: interphase and also cell department (mitosis and cytokinesis). Interphase is the longer of the two stages and takes up most of the cabinet cycle.

Interphase

During the interphase stage, the cabinet grows and carries out its typical life functions, such as transporting materials into and out of the cell as well as undergoing cellular respiration. At some point during interphase, every chromosome in the cell makes precise copy of chin so that—by the finish of interphase—the cell has two the same sets of chromosomes. Each replicated chromosome is composed of two identical chromatids joined together by a centromere (see heredity). Likewise during interphase, the cell’s organelles replicate themselves. Amongst these space the centrosomes, which will play a an essential role during mitosis.

Cell Division
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The cell department stage is fairly short compared with interphase and is split into the four phases that mitosis—prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and also telophase—and cytokinesis.

Prophase

During prophase, the chromosomes, which had actually been thin and also threadlike in interphase, start to condense, or thicken. The nuclear membrane neighboring the cabinet nucleus disintegrates, the nuclear source disappears, and also the centrosomes move toward opposite poles that the cell. The centrosomes of animal, fungal, and also algal cells contain 2 structures called centrioles, which produce short fibers dubbed asters and also longer fibers that kind a spindle across the cell. Centrioles are absent in tree cells; in this cells, the spindle yarn are created directly by the centrosomes.

Metaphase

In metaphase, the spindle fibers connect to the centromeres the the chromosomes and line increase the chromosomes along the center, or “equator,” of the cell.

Anaphase

At the start of anaphase, the centromere of every chromosome divides in two, and also the sister chromatids separate. The spindle fibers then pull the sister chromatids away from each other and toward the contrary poles the the cell. This step is essential, ensuring that each the the daughter cells will have a complete set of chromosomes.

Telophase

As telophase begins, a complete set of identical chromosomes is situated at every pole of the cell. The mitotic spindle breaks down, and also a nuclear membrane starts to kind around each collection of daughter chromosomes.

Cytokinesis


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In animal, fungal, and algal cells, cytokinesis begins as the cell membrane pinches in in ~ both ends of the cabinet equator, splitting the parental cell’s cytoplasm equally in between the newly developing cells. The cell membrane forms a trenchlike furrow that continues to pinch inward until it closes, forming two identical daughter cells. Every daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell, through an identical collection of chromosomes and also a full set of organelles. Cytokinesis also occurs in plant cells, yet the procedure is slightly different. In tree cells, the rigid cell wall surface of the parent cell avoids the cabinet membrane indigenous pinching inward. Instead, a cell plate creates at the middle of the cell and also grows external along the parental cell equator. Cabinet membranes type on either side of the cell plate. Once it will the sides of the parental cell, the plant cell plate fuses v the cell wall, completing the separation the the parental cell into two genetically identical daughter cells. The daughter cells produce cellulose, and also the cabinet plate establishes into a cell wall.

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With mitosis and also cytokinesis completed, the daughter cells enter interphase. The chromosomes begin to relax and again become threadlike and also dispersed within the cabinet nucleus. The chromosomes will certainly remain favor this till the cell are ready to experience mitosis, at which suggest the chromosomes will condense and also thicken, the centrosomes will replicate and also separate, and the cells will prepare to enter prophase.


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