If i was called upon to declare upon Oath, even if it is the Militia have actually been many serviceable or hurtful upon the whole; I have to subscribe come the latter. – George Washington, September 1776


The role of the militia in the American transformation is taken at The American revolution Museum at Yorktown special events. Militia re-enactors existing a musket shoot demonstration in ~ an October Yorktown win Celebration event.

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Even before the struggle for American self-reliance ended, 2 contrasting views of the duty of the Revolutionary militia had actually emerged. Well-known opinion, mental the gallant stand of the Minutemen in ~ Concord and also Lexington, held fast to the right of the brave citizens soldier as the mainstay of defense. Other Americans however, including numerous Continental army veterans, derided the militia’s reputation for fleeing in the confront of the enemy. The early on histories the the change also often tended to minimize the contributions of the militia, and also one acclaimed account that the war, created as late as 1929, even referred come “the utter fail of the militia system.”

More recent studies but have unable to do a long means toward revising this predominantly an adverse assessment of the function played through the militia throughout the battle for independence. Although the relative performance of the Revolutionary militia varied from state to state and year come year, this more recent scholarship has explored and also described several of the an important achievements the the militia that had actually been previously unexamined. These chroniclers note the the duty of the militia is conveniently misunderstood and also that it has to be judged by different standards than those applied to a expert military force. As component of its permanent exhibit plan process, the The American transformation Museum at Yorktown has begun researching the function played by the militia throughout the Revolution, v a special focus on Virginia together a check case.

From the earliest year of English settlement, colonists had relied on local teams of part-time citizens soldiers to protect themselves native the indians or at time to preserve law and also order. By the time of the French and also Indian War, American homesteaders had concerned rely much more on british troops and also volunteer provincial units for protection, however even despite the militia system had actually deteriorated, americans held fast to their belief in the ide of the citizens soldier. Beginning with the rubber stamp Act crisis and also extending transparent the Revolution, the Americans’ suffer with the British military only strengthened their hatred that standing militaries as implements the monarchy and also tyranny and also a risk to civilian government.


More 보다 3,000 militiamen, under the command of Governor thomas Nelson, were existing at the Siege in ~ Yorktownin October 1781. Jamestown-Yorktown structure Collection

Although George Washington and others typically complained about the shortcomings the the militia, part Continental military officers prefer Nathanael Greene had come to a more realistic appraisal of the value of this part-time soldiers by the finish of the war. While the militia can not be counted on to stand up to trained, continuous forces, that could and often did execute other vital roles that were less apparent but an important elements in the winning of independence.

The roots of the various militia equipment that arisen in the north American English swarms reached far back to Anglo-Saxon Britain. All able-bodied freemen could, in theory, be called up because that temporary service by the king to defend their community and the kingdom native invasion. Together the earliest successful English settlement in north America, the Virginia colony automatically faced the trouble of how to defend itself from feasible Spanish attack and also from the native inhabitants.

The an initial quarter of the 17th century to be a duration of experimentation and improvisation as the inhabitants struggled to obtain a foothold in the brand-new World. During the doing well decades, the colony’s evolving militia system was refined, reorganized, and continually tested in combat. Forced to defend themselves with little or no exterior help, the colonists had arisen an effective and also well organized militia device that through the 1670s encompassed virtually all able-bodied, adult males.

As risks to the swarm diminished, the Virginia militia greatly ceased to be an effective combat force. By the beforehand 1770s, the militia’s primary duty was to maintain public order, and also one chronicler has described local militia musters as something “of a joke” since many guys were “untrained, unarmed, and also uninterested.” The situation readjusted dramatically in the spring of 1775 through the outbreak of open up hostilities between the Americans and British forces. By the summer of 1775, the Virginia Revolutionary government had established a threepart military facility consisting of continual full-time soldiers, a militia composed of most free white males, and a smaller, elite militia group to be called “minutemen” that were come be provided extra maintain and provided with hunting shirts and leggings. Although part minutemen carriers did see combat early on on versus Governor Dunmore, in ~ a year the one-of-a-kind minute companies had actually been merged earlier into the consistent militia establishment.


Visitors at the The American transformation Museum at Yorktown space invited to train together members that a citizens militia during the Liberty celebration in July.

By 1777 the Virginia militia’s duties consisted mainly of suppressing loyalists, preventing slave uprisings, and serving together a pool of potential recruits because that the continental Army. Evidence of militia task is scarce and also usually fragmentary, but one way to discover what militiamen actually did during the revolution is to examine their applications for pensions, submitted years after the war. Because the documents from Amherst County, Virginia, are fairly complete, they provide a an excellent example the what type of duties a common militiaman can perform. Amherst militiamen played a variety of roles throughout the year 1775-1782, part being called up because that as plenty of as four or five tours, which normally lasted about three months each. Plenty of Amherst men served together guards in ~ the barracks close to Charlottesville whereby the british soldiers taken sinner at Saratoga were being held. Others were referred to as out to fight ind on the frontier or to relax state forces at adjacent garrisons. Some tours involved nothing much more glamorous than gathering provisions or steering herds of cattle.

Most Amherst militiamen saw little real action until 1780 as soon as they were referred to as on to provide men to fight in the Carolinas. One ill-fated company was in ~ the battle of Camden in August when the men broke and ran away along with the remainder of the Virginia and North Carolinia militia. Another firm of Amherst militiamen was ordered southern in in march 1781 come support general Nathanael Greene, yet arrived as well late to take part in the fight of Guilford Court House.

When Virginia to be invaded start in January 1781, the Amherst militia was called out plenty of times as the British seemed to march at will certainly throughout big areas of the east and central regions that the state. A variety of Amherst County men reported having served under the Marquis de Lafayette in the summer of that year, and some battled in the battle of environment-friendly Spring versus Lord Cornwallis. As Generals Washington and Rochambeau arrived in Virginia in September to start the siege that Yorktown, Amherst militiamen, along with those from numerous other counties, were referred to as up to support the regular army. Numerous of the elderly guys who applied for pensions beginning in the 1820s proudly proclaimed that they were existing at the “surrender of mr Cornwallis.”

By the end of the Revolution, part Continental military officers had learned what the militia could – and also could no – sensibly be supposed to do. Return the militia was hardly ever able to wake up alone to British regulars, it nevertheless made a number of important, also vital, contributions to winning independence.

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By Edward Ayres, Jamestown-Yorktown structure Historian

Listen come an audio interview with Edward Ayres and also Steve Clark of WCVE principles Station about the Virginia Militia in the Revolutionary War.