Identify the departments of the reduced limb and also describe the skeletal of every regionDescribe the bones and also bony landmarks that articulate at each joint that the reduced limb

Like the upper limb, the lower limb is separated into three regions. The thigh is that portion of the lower limb located in between the hip joint and knee joint. The leg is particularly the an ar between the knee joint and also the fishing eye joint. Distal to the fishing eye is the foot. The lower limb has 30 bones. These are the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and also phalanges (see ). The femur is the solitary bone the the thigh. The patella is the kneecap and articulates with the distal femur. The tibia is the larger, weight-bearing bone located on the medial side of the leg, and also the fibula is the thin bone of the lateral leg. The skeletal of the foot are separated into 3 groups. The posterior section of the foot is formed by a group of seven bones, every of which is well-known as a tarsal bone, conversely, the mid-foot contains five elongated bones, each of which is a metatarsal bone. The toes save on computer 14 tiny bones, every of i m sorry is a phalanx bone that the foot.

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Femur

The femur, or thigh bone, is the solitary bone that the thigh an ar (). It is the longest and also strongest bone the the body, and also accounts for approximately one-quarter that a person’s complete height. The rounded, proximal finish is the head of the femur, which articulates through the acetabulum the the i know good bone to type the i know well joint. The fovea capitis is a boy indentation on the medial next of the femoral head that serves as the website of attachment because that the ligament that the head of the femur. This ligament spans the femur and also acetabulum, but is weak and also provides small support because that the hip joint. The does, however, carry crucial artery that supplies the head that the femur.


Femur and Patella
The femur is the solitary bone of the thigh region. That articulates superiorly through the i know good bone in ~ the i know good joint, and inferiorly with the tibia at the knee joint. The patella only articulates through the distal end of the femur.

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Watch this video to view exactly how a fracture of the mid-femur is operation repaired. How are the two sections of the broken femur stabilized during surgical repair of a broken femur?


Patella

The patella (kneecap) is biggest sesamoid bone the the human body (see ). A sesamoid bone is a bone the is integrated into the tendon the a muscle wherein that tendon the cross a joint. The sesamoid bone articulates v the basic bones come prevent damage to the muscle tendon because of rubbing versus the bones throughout movements that the joint. The patella is uncovered in the tendon that the quadriceps femoris muscle, the large muscle of the anterior thigh that passes across the anterior knee to attach to the tibia. The patella articulates with the patellar surface ar of the femur and also thus prevents rubbing that the muscle tendon against the distal femur. The patella additionally lifts the tendon away from the knee joint, which boosts the leverage power of the quadriceps femoris muscle as it acts throughout the knee. The patella does no articulate through the tibia.




The cuboid bone articulates v the anterior finish of the calcaneus bone. The cuboid has a deep groove running across its inferior surface, which provides passage for a muscle tendon. The talus bone articulates anteriorly with the navicular bone, which consequently articulates anteriorly with the three cuneiform (“wedge-shaped”) bones. This bones space the medial cuneiform, the intermediary cuneiform, and also the lateral cuneiform. Each of these bones has a vast superior surface and a narrow inferior surface, i beg your pardon together develop the transverse (medial-lateral) curvature that the foot. The navicular and lateral picture writing bones additionally articulate v the medial side of the cuboid bone.


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View this attach to learn about a bunion, a localized ede on the medial next of the foot, next to the very first metatarsophalangeal joint, at the base of the big toe. What is a bunion and also what type of shoe is most most likely to reason this come develop?


Arches that the Foot

When the foot comes into call with the ground throughout walking, running, or jumping activities, the influence of the body weight puts a significant amount of pressure and also force top top the foot. During running, the force used to each foot as it contacts the ground have the right to be up to 2.5 times your body weight. The bones, joints, ligaments, and also muscles that the foot absorb this force, thus greatly reducing the lot of shock that is happen superiorly right into the reduced limb and also body. The arcs of the foot play an important role in this shock-absorbing ability. When weight is used to the foot, these arches will flatten somewhat, thus absorbing energy. When the load is removed, the arch rebounds, providing “spring” come the step. The arches also serve to distribute body weight side come side and to either end of the foot.

The foot has a transverse arch, a medial longitudinal arch, and also a lateral longitudinal arch (see ). The transverse arch forms the medial-lateral curvature the the mid-foot. That is formed by the wedge forms of the cuneiform bones and also bases (proximal ends) of the first to fourth metatarsal bones. This arch helps to distribute body load from next to next within the foot, thus permitting the foot come accommodate uneven terrain.

The longitudinal arcs run down the length of the foot. The lateral longitudinal arch is reasonably flat, vice versa, the medial longitudinal arch is bigger (taller). The longitudinal arches are formed by the tarsal skeletal posteriorly and the metatarsal skeletal anteriorly. These arcs are sustained at either end, where they call the ground. Posteriorly, this assistance is detailed by the calcaneus bone and also anteriorly by the heads (distal ends) the the metatarsal bones. The talus bone, i beg your pardon receives the load of the body, is situated at the height of the longitudinal arches. Body load is then conveyed native the talus to the soil by the anterior and also posterior end of this arches. Solid ligaments unite the nearby foot skeleton to avoid disruption the the arches during weight bearing. On the bottom of the foot, added ligaments tie together the anterior and also posterior ends of the arches. This ligaments have elasticity, which enables them come stretch somewhat throughout weight bearing, thus allowing the longitudinal arcs to spread. The stretching of this ligaments stores power within the foot, quite than happen these forces into the leg. Contraction of the foot muscles also plays crucial role in this energy absorption. As soon as the weight is removed, the elastic ligaments recoil and pull the end of the arches closer together. This restore of the arches releases the save energy and also improves the energy efficiency of walking.

Stretching that the ligaments that support the longitudinal arches can cause pain. This can occur in overweight individuals, with civilization who have jobs the involve was standing for lengthy periods the time (such together a waitress), or walking or running long distances. If stretching of the ligaments is prolonged, excessive, or repeated, that can result in a steady lengthening the the sustaining ligaments, with succeeding depression or please of the longitudinal arches, an especially on the medial side of the foot. This condition is referred to as pes planus (“flat foot” or “fallen arches”).


Chapter Review

The lower limb is split into three regions. These space the thigh, located between the hip and also knee joints; the leg, located between the knee and ankle joints; and also distal to the ankle, the foot. There are 30 skeleton in each lower limb. These are the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, seven tarsal bones, five metatarsal bones, and 14 phalanges.

The femur is the solitary bone of the thigh. Its rounded head articulates with the acetabulum that the i know good bone to type the hip joint. The head has actually the fovea capitis because that attachment of the ligament that the head the the femur. The narrow neck joins inferiorly through the greater and also lesser trochanters. Passing between these bony expansions are the intertrochanteric heat on the anterior femur and the bigger intertrochanteric stakes on the posterior femur. Top top the posterior shaft of the femur is the gluteal tuberosity proximally and also the linea aspera in the mid-shaft region. The expanded distal end consists of 3 articulating surfaces: the medial and also lateral condyles, and the patellar surface. The outside margins that the condyles space the medial and lateral epicondyles. The adductor tubercle is on the superior aspect of the medial epicondyle.

The patella is a sesamoid bone located within a muscle tendon. The articulates through the patellar surface on the anterior next of the distal femur, thereby protecting the muscle tendon from rubbing versus the femur.

The leg contains the big tibia top top the medial side and also the slim fibula top top the lateral side. The tibia bears the weight of the body, conversely, the fibula does no bear weight. The interosseous border of each bone is the attachment site for the interosseous membrane the the leg, the connective tissue sheet that unites the tibia and fibula.

The proximal tibia is composed of the expanded medial and lateral condyles, i beg your pardon articulate with the medial and lateral condyles the the femur to kind the knee joint. In between the tibial condyles is the intercondylar eminence. On the anterior next of the proximal tibia is the tibial tuberosity, which is constant inferiorly v the anterior border the the tibia. ~ above the posterior side, the proximal tibia has actually the curved soleal line. The bony expansion on the medial side of the distal tibia is the medial malleolus. The groove ~ above the lateral next of the distal tibia is the fibular notch.

The head that the fibula develops the proximal end and also articulates through the underside the the lateral condyle the the tibia. The distal fibula articulates v the fibular notch the the tibia. The increased distal end of the fibula is the lateral malleolus.

The posterior foot is developed by the 7 tarsal bones. The talus articulates superiorly with the distal tibia, the medial malleolus of the tibia, and the lateral malleolus of the fibula to kind the fish eye joint. The talus articulates inferiorly through the calcaneus bone. The sustentaculum tali that the calcaneus helps to support the talus. Anterior come the talus is the navicular bone, and anterior come this space the medial, intermediate, and also lateral picture writing bones. The cuboid bone is anterior to the calcaneus.

The 5 metatarsal bones form the anterior foot. The base of these bones articulate with the cuboid or picture writing bones. The metatarsal heads, at your distal ends, articulate v the proximal phalanges the the toes. The big toe (toe number 1) has proximal and also distal phalanx bones. The continuing to be toes have actually proximal, middle, and also distal phalanges.

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Watch this video clip to view just how a fracture of the mid-femur is operation repaired. Just how are the two parts of the broken femur stabilized throughout surgical repair of a fractured femur?


A hole is drilled right into the greater trochanter, the bone marrow (medullary) room inside the femur is enlarged, and finally one intramedullary stick is inserted into the femur. This stick is then anchored to the bone with screws.