Learning Objectives

Define, solid, liquid, and also gas.Explain differences among these 3 phases that matter.

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Why is the state the water different in each picture?

Why is the state the water different in each picture?

Water can take plenty of forms. At short temperatures (below 0°C), the is a solid. When at “normal” temperatures (between 0°C and 100°C), that is a liquid. While in ~ temperatures above 100°C, water is a gas (steam).

The state the water is in depends upon the temperature. Every state (solid, liquid, and also gas) has actually its very own unique set of physics properties.

Matter and also Its States

Matter frequently exists in among three states: solid , liquid , or gas . The state a offered substance exhibits is likewise a physics property. Part substances exist as gases in ~ room temperature (oxygen and also carbon dioxide), when others, like water and also mercury metal, exist together liquids. Most steels exist together solids at room temperature. Every substances can exist in any of these three states. In addition to present in among the three states, issue can additionally undergo a change the state. A adjust of state occurs when issue is converted from one state to an additional state for example when a fluid is convert to a gas or a heavy is converted to a liquid.

Note: Technically speaking a fourth state of matter called plasma exists, however it does no naturally take place on earth, therefore we will omit it from our study here.


Liquids have the following characteristics:

no definite form (takes the shape of that is container)has identify volumeparticles are complimentary to move over each other, yet are still attracted to every other

A acquainted liquid is mercury metal. Mercury is one anomaly. The is the only steel we understand of that is liquid at room temperature. Mercury also has an capability to pole to chin (surface tension) – a property all liquids exhibit. Mercury has actually a fairly high surface ar tension, which provides it an extremely unique. Right here you check out mercury in its common liquid form.

Figure 2.6


If we were to warm liquid mercury come its boiling allude of 357°C, and also under the right pressure conditions, us would notification all corpuscle in the fluid state get in the gas state.


Gases have the complying with characteristics:

no definite form (takes the shape of that is container)no definite volumeparticles move in random motion with small or no attraction to each otherhighly compressibleSolid

Solids are defined by the following characteristics:

definite shape (rigid)definite volumeparticles vibrate about fixed axes

If us were come cool fluid mercury come its freezing point of -39°C, and also under the right push conditions, we would an alert all of the fluid particles would go into the heavy state.

The video below reflects this process.

As you have the right to see in the video, mercury can be solidified once its temperature is carried to its freeze point. However, once returned to room temperature conditions, mercury does not exist in solid state because that long, and returns earlier to its more common fluid form.

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Three states of matter exist – solid, liquid, and also gas.Solids have a identify shape and also volume.Liquids have actually a identify volume, however take the shape of the container.Gases have actually no definite shape or volume.



Use the web site come answer the adhering to questions:


Which product is a gas at room temperature (25°C)?Which product is a solid in ~ room temperature?Which material is a fluid at room temperature?What wake up to the activity of the particles as you increase the temperature?What wake up to the motion of the particles as you to decrease the temperature?



How numerous states of matter are there?What is a solid?What is a liquid?What is a gas?