To recognize stoichiometry, you"ll have to know just how to usage moles, and also you can want come brush increase on your an easy chemical reactions. You need to have an excellent reaction balancing skills.

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When the an are shuttle took turn off it provided two different rocket systems. The key engines were powered by combine oxygen and also hydrogen in the very exothermic reaction

2H2 + O2 ⇌ 2H2O

The fuel to be stored in that brown tank in liquid form as fluid oxygen (LOX) and also liquid hydrogen (LH2). Liquids room much much more dense 보다 gases, so storage in the liquid phase allows the spaceship to bring an enormous amount the fuel.

Unfortunately, the fuel comprised the bulk of the weight the the spaceship at liftoff. So most of what the shuttle engines lifted indigenous the ground to be fuel. That way it was an extremely important no to have too lot of one or the other reactant ~ above board. We"d want just enough hydrogen come react with the lot of oxygen top top board, and also vice versa. That"s where stoichiometry and also moles room essential.

And probably you have the right to be the one to invent a sort of rocket propulsion that will certainly release more energy per lb of fuel!


Space shuttle launch – NASA

Stoichiometry is the relationship in between the relative quantities of substances associated in a chemistry reaction, frequently ratios of entirety numbers. Stoichiometry is a catch all word for every one of the calculations we execute to determine how much that what come mix with what.

Example 1 – space shuttle fuel mixture

Let"s begin with a calculation relevant to our opening example: The an are shuttle LOX tank organized 629,340 Kg (about 630 metric tons) the LOX. How many kilograms that Hydrogen would it need to lug in order to guarantee that the reaction


goes come completion, through no reaction remaining? (The backward rate of this reaction is extremely slow compared to the explosive front rate, thus the solitary arrow)

Solution: We begin by determining the variety of moles the O2 that us have:


In the calculation above, I"ve combined the conversion from Kg to grams with the calculation of the variety of moles that O2 (32 g/mol). That"s simple if we save track the units. Currently that we have actually the number of moles of O2, we use the well balanced chemical equation (that"s what it"s for!) to uncover out how countless moles the H2 we need. Native the coefficients, you can see that two moles of H2 are consumed for every one mole that O2, so we require 3.94 x 107 mol of H2 (1.97 x 2 = 3.94)

The mole ratio told united state that in this reaction specifically twice the number of moles that H2 are offered as O2. Currently it"s simply a basic matter of converting 3.94 x 104 mol of H2 come Kg of H2.

We could move forward and complete the calculation one action at a time - moles O2 to mole H2 come grams H2 come Kg H2, but there"s a faster method if we make an excellent use that units and also cancellation the units. Here"s just how to combine the second component of the calculation into one large step:


Notice that in each of the big fractions above, a relationship and its units space written, and written in together a method that the units cancel through those of the previous ax to gain us closer come the wanted units, in this instance Kg that H2.

So about 79,000 Kg the H2 would be necessary to react with 629,340 Kg that LOX.

It turns out the in practice the shuttles brought a little more LH2 than that because of engine effectiveness issues and also because the rate of loss of lighter LH2 because of evaporation during the wait for launch is higher than that of LOX.

Nevertheless, ns hope you get the idea. This is a very important calculation and it depends 100% top top doing an excellent stoichiometry.

Example 2

How plenty of moles that nitric mountain (HNO3) are forced to fully dissolve 1 g that copper (Cu) follow to the reaction 2HNO3 (aq) + Cu (s) ⇌ CuNO3 (aq) + NO2 (g) + H2O

Solution: The first thing to carry out is to transform the difficulty to the common currency of every stoichiometry problems, the mole. We require to figure out how many moles that Cu space in 1 g of Cu:


Now the we"ve got the variety of moles that copper, the balanced equation (check it!) tells united state that because that every one mole the Cu, 2 moles of nitric acid are needed, therefore we require 3.64 x 10-2 moles of HNO3. That"s it!

We could, of course, transform the variety of moles that HNO3 to grams and then even to milliliters that HNO3 systems if we know its concentration.


Source: education in Chemistry, Nov. 2011

Example 3

In the above example, how many grams of a 30% (by weight) aqueous systems of HNO3 would be compelled to run the reaction to completion?

Solution: In this situation, we already know the we need 3.64 x 10-2 moles of nitric acid, therefore we just need to convert to grams the HNO3, then address that percent part:


That"s how plenty of grams that HNO3 we need, now we require to discover out how much of the 30% solution that equates to.The calculate we desire is:


Often (particularly in the biological sciences) systems concentrations are provided in percent, either weight of solute divided by full weight of systems %(w/w) or weight of solute over full volume of solution %(w/v).

See the note on concentration come brush up on just how to specify the concentration the solutions.

Example 4

n-octane (C8H18) is a principal component of gasoline. That oxidizes (burns) in the visibility of oxygen according to the equation

2 C8H18 (g) + 25 O2 (g) ⇌ 16 CO2 (g) + 18 H2O (g)

If 1 gallon of gasoline is melted in the presence of excess oxygen (i.e. Enough oxygen to make the reaction go to completion), how plenty of liters of CO2 gas space emitted into the atmosphere? There are 3.785 liters in a gallon and the density of petrol is around 0.75 Kg/liter. At atmospheric temperature and also pressure, 1 mole that CO2 gas take away up about 22.4 liters of volume.


Photo: California Air sources Board

Solution: First, look at the balanced equation (and make sure it"s balanced). This question only asks united state to compare amounts of C8H18 to CO2. It says that there will certainly be much more than enough oxygen, and we don"t really treatment how much water is produced. Therefore we start by detect the variety of moles that C8H18. First we require to transform from gallons come liters using the switch given: 1 gallon = 3.785 liters.

Now we deserve to use the thickness of gasoline to find the approximate mass the octane (we"re assuming the gas is 100% octane here, not too negative an approximation).

Here"s the massive of octane:


Now convert to moles:


Now we use the mole proportion in the well balanced equation: for every 2 moles the C8H18 we form 16 moles of CO2.


Now we can use the molar volume that CO2 gas (the volume the one mole takes up - given) to find our result:


There room 1000 liters in a cubic meter, therefore that"s about 4.5 cubic meters of CO2 gas emitted from every gallon the gas burnt. Something come think about.

Now we might easily have done this totality calculation at as soon as by just multiplying the numerous terms in parenthesis above and canceling units. Here"s exactly how it looks:


All that the devices cancel unique in a nice progression from gallons of octane to liters the CO2. Mental that division is just multiplication by the reciprocal and that multiplication is commutative, so these numbers have the right to be multiplied and also divided top top a calculator in any type of order, like:

= 3.785 · 750 · 16 · 22.4 / (114 ·2) liters

PS: as soon as you examine gases, you"ll learn that a mole of any gas at standard temperature and also pressure, T = 273K and also P = 1 atm, occupies 22.4 liters. The was Avogadro"s original conjecture.

Example 5 — Limiting reactant

Gold (Au) metal reacts v chlorine gas (Cl2) to form gold (III) chloride, AuCl3.

2 Au(s) + 3 Cl2 (g) ⇌ 2 AuCl3 (g)

How many grams that AuCl3 will be formed if 1 g the gold steel is reacted with 2 g of Cl2 ?

Solution: difficulties like these are tricky. It"s unlikely that 1 g that Au and 2 g of Cl2 are specifically "stoichiometric." the is, it"s unlikely that there"s just sufficient of both so that at the end of the reaction, every reactants are provided up and we only have actually products.

That way that among the reactants will run out first, and we contact this the limiting reactant. As soon as it operation out, the reaction needs to stop. For this reason our first job in a problem like this is to uncover out i m sorry reactant is limiting.

We start by calculating the number of moles of every reactant present:


Now look again in ~ the reaction:

2 Au(s) + 3 Cl2 (g) ⇌ 2 AuCl3 (g)

It claims that for every 2 mole of gold, we need 3 mole of chlorine gas. In fact, it"s straightforward to check out that we have an ext Cl2 보다 that. Look in ~ it the various other way: The equation states that for every three moles that Cl2, we need 2 mole of gold. It"s not also close. Either method we look in ~ it, Au is the limiting reactant.

Now the we"ve figured out the limiting reactant, the cheat is to basic all further calculations on it, because its lot alone identify how much the reaction will certainly proceed. Now it"s simply a matter of finding the end how plenty of moles the AuCl3 will be formed:


(We could have done that just by inspection, of course!). Finally, the mass of AuCl3 produced:


Example 6 — Limiting reactant

152 grams the carbon monoxide (CO) are included to 24 g the hydrogen gas (H2) to produce methanol (CH3OH). How numerous grams that methanol* will certainly be produced?

*Methanol is likewise called methyl alcohol

Solution: first we need to write a reaction. It"s just an enhancement reaction,

CO + H2 → CH3OH

Well, that"s an unbalanced reaction, therefore we ought to balance it. That turns out to it is in simple:

CO + 2 H2 → CH3OH

Now we just need to calculate the variety of moles of CH3OH we could expect if 24 g the H2 reacted completely (assuming excess CO) and also if 152 g that CO reacted totally (assuming overfill H2). The lesser variety of moles will be the theoretical maximum variety of moles that CH3OH formed. Very first the H2:


Then the CO:


Now it"s basic to check out that the limiting reagent is CO. Once 5.4 moles of methanol has been produced, the supply of CO will certainly be exhausted, v 0.6 mole of H2 remaining. Now we simply need to calculation the fixed of CH3OH that is 5.4 moles:


Solving limiting reactant problems

To resolve a limiting reactant problem, calculation the number of moles the the wanted product that would certainly be obtained from each of the reactants, presume an excess of all various other reactants. The reactant that returns the least product is the limiting reactant, and also that productivity of product is the theoretical maximum yield of the reaction.

Example 7 — One more limiting reactant problem ...

93 Kg the nitrogen gas (N2) are added to 265.8 Kg that hydrogen gas (H2) to produce ammonia gas (NH3). How much ammonia (in Kg) have the right to be created by this reaction?

Solution: First, the well balanced reaction is

N2 + 3 H2 → 2 NH3

Now we calculate the number of moles the NH3 we can expect if 93 Kg that N2 reacted fully (assuming excess H2) and if 265.8 Kg that H2 reacted totally (assuming overabundance N2). The lesser variety of moles will certainly be the theoretical maximum number of moles the NH3 formed. An initial the N2:


Then the H2:


Well, it"s very easy to see that the limiting reagent is N2. When 6,643 mole of ammonia has been produced, the it is provided of N2 will be exhausted, with many an ext moles that H2 remaining. Currently we just need to calculate the mass of NH3 the constitutes 6,643 moles:


Why is the synthesis of ammonia (NH3) important?

You will recall indigenous your research of bonding the the triple link in N-N is an extremely strong. In fact, over there are only a pair of things in nature that deserve to break it. One is an energetic electrical arc like in lightning. Another an extremely important one is the biochemistry of plants called legumes. This plants can break the N-N link to kind atomic nitrogen thats easily accessible for usage in make amino acids and also nucleic acids. Us couldn"t get along without them.

In modern agriculture, it"s very important to have non-N2 nitrogen easily accessible in the soil, but that supply gets depleted in time as we grow more food top top the land, for this reason we need to add nitrogen-rich fertilizer come it. The primary resource of that nitrogen is fertilizer. The reaction come synthesize ammonia is run making use of a catalyst and the procedure is referred to as the Haber process. It"s among the most important chemical reactions us have.

Practice problems


Consider the reaction

N2 (g) + F2 (g) → NF3 (g)

Balance the equation if necessary. If 27.5 g the nitrogen gas (N2) are used in the reaction, what massive of fluorine (F2) would certainly be required for the reaction to walk to completion?


The formula load of N2 is 28 g/mol (2 × 14, the atomic load of nitrogen) and the FW of F2 is 38 g/mol (2 × 19, the atomic load of fluorine).


Consider the reaction

C6H10 (g) + O2 (g) → CO2 (g) + H2O (g)

Balance the equation if necessary. If only 18.3 g of O2 is available, just how much C6H10 (cyclohexene) have the right to be reacted? how much CO2 (in grams) would be developed by this reaction?


This is a burning reaction.


Consider the reaction

HBr (aq) + KHCO3 (aq) → H2O (l) + KBr (aq) + CO2 (g)

Balance the reaction. What type of reaction is this? How countless moles the KBr would be created by reacting 3.3 mole of HBr with plenty the KHCO3? How plenty of grams that KBr would be developed by reaction 3.3 moles of HBr with only 1.2 mole of KHCO3? price

This reaction is an overwhelming to classify. It"s component displacement and component decomposition (more commodities than reactants). Plenty of reactions don"t fit neatly into any type of one category.


In 2018, citizens and also businesses the the united state burned around 29.9 sunshine cubic feet of organic gas. That"s approximately 1.6 × 109 Kg of propane, if we assume that organic gas is greatly propane (not a damaging assumption, however it additionally contains methane, butane and also other tiny hydrocarbon gases and contaminants).

create a balanced reaction because that the burning of propane, C3H8. Assuming many of oxygen is accessible for the reactions, calculation the number of metric lots (1 metric ton = 1000 Kg) that CO2 that space released right into the environment by this reactions. prize



Consider the reaction:

KClO3 (aq) → KCl (aq) + O2 (g)

Balance the reaction. What kind of reaction is this? If 19.5 g the oxygen gas (O2) are created by this reaction, calculation the lot of KClO3 that must have actually been present. Assume that the reaction goes come completion. (By the way, that is pretty rare for a reaction to in reality go come completion.) price



Consider the reaction

K (s) + Cl2 (g) → KCl (s)

Balance the reaction. What kind of reaction is this? If 1.5 g of potassium (K) reacts through 194 g that chlorine gas (Cl2), exactly how much KCl will certainly be formed? If 28 g the KCl were developed in this reaction, exactly how much Cl2 (in grams) must have reacted? answer



Consider the reaction:

Cu (s) + AgNO3 (g) → Cu(NO3)2 (aq) + Ag (s)

Balance the reaction. What form of reaction is this? How plenty of grams that copper (Cu) would be required, assuming many of AgNO3 to reaction with, to kind 2.8 g of silver metal (Ag)? If 1.0 g that AgNO3 to be reacted v 92.0 g the Cu metal (copper), how much Cu(NO3)2 would certainly be formed in this reaction? answer



Methyl mercaptan (CH4S or CH3SH) is one of the stinky (rotten egg smell) gases added to family members natural gas so that humans have the right to detect leaks prior to being asphyxiated through them. The burning of methyl mercaptan to produce sulfur dioxide:

CH4S + 3 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + SO2

How plenty of grams the sulfur dioxide (SO2) are developed from complete combustion of 5 g of CH4S ? How countless grams of SO2 are formed when 5 g that CH4S react through 2.0 g the O2 ? answer



Consider the reaction:

Au2S3 (aq) + H2 (g) → H2S (g) + Au (s)

If 500.2 g the Au2S3 (gold sulfide) and also 5.67 g of H2 react, calculation the lot (in grams) of each of the products.




See more: It Turns Out Some Men Don'T Know How Many Holes Do A Girl Have ?

Consider the reaction:

Mg3N2 + 6 H2O (l) → 3 Mg(OH)2 (aq) + 2 NH3 (aq)

If 58.1 g of Mg3N2 and also 20.4 g that H2O react, calculate the masses of every of the products.