Most atoms execute not have actually eight electrons in their valence electron shell. Part atoms have only a few electrons in their outer shell, while part atoms lack only one or 2 electrons to have actually an octet. In situations where one atom has actually three or under valence electrons, the atom may lose those valence electrons quite quickly until what continues to be is a reduced shell that has an octet. Atom that shed electrons get a confident charge as a resultbecause they space left through fewer negatively charged electrons to balance the positive charges of the protons in the nucleus. Positively charged ions are referred to as cations. Most metals end up being cations once they make ionic compounds.

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Cations

A neutral sodium atom is likely to attain an octet in that outermost shell by losing its one valence electron.

The cation produced in this way, Na+, is referred to as the sodium ion to differentiate it indigenous the element. The outermost shell of the salt ion is the 2nd electron shell, which has actually eight electrons in it. The octet preeminence has been satisfied. Number (PageIndex1) is a graphical explicate of this process.

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api/deki/files/114134/3.2B.jpg?revision=1" />Figure (PageIndex2): The development of a Chlorine Ion. On the left, the chlorine atom has 17 electrons. ~ above the right, the chloride ion has actually 18 electrons and also has a 1− charge.

The name for optimistic and an adverse ions room pronounced CAT-eye-ons and ANN-eye-ons, respectively.

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In many cases, aspects that belong to the same group (vertical column) ~ above the regular table kind ions through the very same charge due to the fact that they have actually the same variety of valence electrons. Thus, the periodic table becomes a tool for remembering the charges on plenty of ions. For example, all ion made from alkali metals, the very first column ~ above the regular table, have a 1+ charge. Ions made indigenous alkaline planet metals, the second group ~ above the periodic table, have actually a 2+ charge. On the other side of the periodic table, the next-to-last column, the halogens, form ions having a 1− charge. Number (PageIndex3) shows exactly how the charge on many ions can be guess by the ar of an element on the routine table. Keep in mind the convention of very first writing the number and then the sign on a ion with multiple charges. The barium cation is composed Ba2+, no Ba+2.