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1) The spinal cord is part of the ________ concerned system.

You are watching: In the spinal cord, white matter is separated into ascending and descending tracts organized as

A) peripheral

B) somatic

C) central

D) autonomic

E) afferent


2) The ________ is a strand of fibrous organization that provides longitudinal assistance to the spinal cord together a ingredient of the coccygeal ligament.

A) conus medullaris

B) filum terminale

C) cauda equina

D) dorsal root

E) ventral root


3) Spinal nerves are

A) purely sensory.

B) completely motor.

C) both sensory and also motor.

D) interneuronal.

E) involuntary.


4) The spinal cord consists of four regions and ________ segments.

A) five

B) twelve

C) twenty-five

D) thirty-one

E) The number different widely among individuals.


5) The dorsal source ganglia greatly contain

A) axons of motor neurons.

B) axons the sensory neurons.

C) cabinet bodies of engine neurons.

D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.

E) synapses.


6) The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains

A) axons of motor neurons.

B) axons the sensory neurons.

C) cabinet bodies of engine neurons.

D) cabinet bodies the sensory neurons.

E) interneurons.


7) The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains

A) axons of motor neurons.

B) axons that sensory neurons.

C) cell bodies of engine neurons.

D) cabinet bodies of sensory neurons.

E) interneurons.


8) The tough, fibrous, outermost spanning of the spinal cord is the

A) arachnoid.

B) pia mater.

C) dura mater.

D) epidural block.

E) periosteum.


9) After age ________, the vertebral column proceeds to elongate, but the spinal cord itself does not.

A) 8

B) 12

C) 18

D) 4

E) 1


10) If the dorsal source of a spinal nerve is severed,

A) output to skeleton muscles would be blocked.

B) calculation to visceral organs would certainly be blocked.

C) the spinal cord would not it is in able to procedure information at that level.

D) the mind would not be able to communicate with that level that the spinal cord.

E) sensory input would be blocked.


11) The subdural an are lies between

A) the arachnoid mater and also the pia mater.

B) the pia mater and the dura mater.

C) the dura mater and also the arachnoid mater.

D) the pia mater and the subarachnoid space.

E) the endosteum and the periosteum.


12) The great of the meninges in direct call with the spinal cord is the

A) dura mater.

B) subarachnoid space.

C) arachnoid.

D) pia mater.

E) choroid plexus.


13) A dorsal and also ventral source of every spinal segment unite to kind a

A) cervical enlargement.

B) lumbar enlargement.

C) spinal nerve.

D) spinal meninx.

E) spinal ganglion.


14) In meningitis,

A) inflammation the the meninges occurs.

B) bacteria deserve to be the cause.

C) viruses can be the cause.

D) CSF circulation can it is in disrupted.

E) every one of the answers are correct.


15) i beg your pardon of the adhering to is true concerning an epidural block?

A) the is commonly used together a technique of pain manage during labor and also delivery.

B) that affects only the spinal nerves in the prompt area that the injection.

C) the can administer sensory and motor anesthesia, relying on the anesthetic selected.

D) that can provide mainly sensory anesthesia, depending on the anesthetic selected.

E) every one of the answers are correct.


16) Cerebrospinal fluid flows in ~ the

A) filum terminale.

B) subarachnoid space.

C) dura mater.

D) pia mater.

E) arachnoid mater.


17) The spinal cord continues to elongate until about age

A) 20 years.

B) 10 years.

C) 4 years.

D) 6 months.

E) 2 months.


18) The devoted membranes the surround the spinal cord are termed the

A) cranial meninges.

B) cranial mater.

C) spinal meninges.

D) spinal mater.

E) epidural membranes.


19) Blood vessels the supply the spinal cord operation along the surface ar of the

A) pia mater.

B) dura mater.

C) epidural space.

D) subdural space.

E) subarachnoid space.


20) Samples that CSF because that diagnostic functions are normally derived by place the reminder of a needle in the

A) dura mater.

B) arachnoid mater.

C) epidural space.

D) subarachnoid space.

E) cerebral ventricles.


22) invoice contracts a viral condition that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. Together a result, i beg your pardon of the complying with would you expect?

A) lose of emotion in his torso

B) inability to breathe

C) difficulties with moving his arms

D) uncontrollable sweating of his feet

E) problems moving his legs


23) The white matter of the spinal cord is mainly

A) unmyelinated axons.

B) neuroglia.

C) Schwann cells.

D) myelinated axons.

E) nodes that Ranvier.


24) The gray horns the the spinal cord save mainly

A) nerve tracts.

B) columns.

C) meninges.

D) neuron cabinet bodies.

E) funiculi.


25) The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly

A) sensory nuclei.

B) somatic motor nuclei.

C) autonomic engine nuclei.

D) nerve tracts.

E) sympathetic nuclei.


26) The anterior horns of the spinal cord save mainly

A) sensory nuclei.

B) somatic engine nuclei.

C) autonomic engine nuclei.

D) nerve tracts.

E) forgiveness nuclei.


27) Nerve tracts or fasciculi make up the

A) main canal.

B) posterior gray horns.

C) gray commissures.

D) white columns.

E) anterior gray horns.


28) In the spinal cord, white issue is separated into ascending and also descending tracts arranged as

A) nuclei.

B) ganglia.

C) columns.

D) nerves.

E) horns.


29) The exterior projections from the main gray issue of the spinal cord, seen easily in microscope spinal cord overcome sections, are called

A) wings.

B) horns.

C) pyramids.

D) fibers.

E) tracts.


30) Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord come the various other within the gray issue are found in the

A) anterior gray horns.

B) lateral gray horns.

C) posterior gray horns.

D) gray commissures.

E) white commissures.


31) The white issue of the spinal cord contains

A) majority of axons with typical origins, destinations, and also functions.

B) bundles of dendrites with usual origins, destinations, and functions.

C) sensory and also motor nuclei.

D) both axons and dendrites.

E) interneurons.


38) right into what spinal area would certainly one inject a chemistry whose function is to anesthetize the patient?

A) the subarachnoid space

B) the central canal

C) the subdural space

D) the epidural space

E) the venous dural sinus


39) The outermost connective-tissue extending of nerves is the

A) endoneurium.

B) endomysium.

C) perineurium.

D) epineurium.

E) epimysium.


40) The preganglionic yarn that affix a spinal nerve v an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord and carries visceral motor fibers that are myelinated type the

A) white rami communicantes.

B) gray rami communicantes.

C) dorsal ramus.

D) ventral ramus.

E) dermatomes.


41) The postganglionic yarn that attach an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic or lumbar an ar with the spinal nerve and also contain postganglionic fibers that innervate glands in the body wall or smooth muscles in four are

A) white rami communicantes.

B) gray rami communicantes.

C) dorsal ramus.

D) ventral ramus.

E) dermatomes.


42) Postganglionic yarn of the autonomic nervous system that innervate interior organs are

A) dorsal rami.

B) ventral rami.

C) white rami.

D) gray rami.

E) sympathetic nerves.


43) i m sorry of the following associations is incorrect?

A) 8 cervical spinal nerves

B) 11 thoracic spinal nerves

C) 5 lumbar spinal nerves

D) 5 sacral spinal nerves

E) 1 coccygeal spinal nerve


44) The ________ of each spinal nerve innervates the skin and also muscles the the back.

A) white ramus communicantes

B) gray ramus communicantes

C) dorsal ramus

D) ventral ramus

E) dermatome


45) muscles of the neck and also shoulder room innervated by spinal nerves native the ________ region.

A) cervical

B) thoracic

C) lumbar

D) sacral

E) coccygeal


46) The ventral rami that spinal nerves C5 come T1 add fibers to the ________ plexus.

A) cervical

B) brachial

C) lumbar

D) sacral

E) thoracic


47) In i m sorry plexus walk the ulnar nerve arise?

A) cranial

B) cervical

C) brachial

D) lumbar

E) sacral


48) In the condition ________, a virus infects dorsal source ganglia, causing a ache rash whose distribution coincides to that of the affected sensory nerves as viewed in your dermatomes.

A) myasthenia gravis

B) neuronal damage

C) shingles

D) chickenpox

E) Hodgkin"s disease


49) The class of connective organization that surrounding a fascicle within a peripheral nerve is the

A) perineurium.

B) epineurium.

C) endoneurium.

D) epimysium.

E) endosteum.


50) Spinal nerves indigenous the sacral region of the cord innervate the ________ muscles.

A) shoulder

B) intercostal

C) abdominal

D) leg

E) facial


51) The ________ innervates the ventrolateral body surface, frameworks in the human body wall, and the limbs.

A) white rami communicantes

B) gray rami communicantes

C) dorsal ramus

D) ventral ramus

E) dermatomes


52) The obturator nerve is spread to the

A) adductors of the hip.

B) skin end the perineum.

C) extensors the the hip.

D) skin end buttocks.

E) biceps femoris.


53) A viral condition that destroys the cells of the anterior gray horn will

A) result in skeletal muscle weak or paralysis.

B) interfere with place sense.

C) largely interfere with crude touch and also temperature sense.

D) block autonomic regulation.

E) impact visceral engine function.


54) The complex, interwoven network created by contribute from the ventral rami of bordering spinal nerves is termed a(n)

A) dermatome.

B) autonomic nerve.

C) lateral nerve.

D) tract.

E) plexus.


55) each of the following nerves originates in the lumbar plexus other than the ________ nerve.

A) saphenous

B) sciatic

C) femoral

D) obturator

E) genitofemoral


56) The ________ nerve, which occurs in the cervical plexus, innervates the diaphragm.

A) ansa cervicalis

B) lesser occipital

C) radial

D) phrenic

E) sciatic


57) The class of connective organization that surrounding individual axons within a peripheral nerve is termed the

A) endoneurium.

B) perineurium.

C) aponeurium.

D) metaneurium.

E) subneurium.


58) The ventral rami form four major plexuses, including every one of the following except the ________ plexus.

A) brachial

B) lumbar

C) sacral

D) nuchal

E) cervical


59) If a person has a crush injury come the C3-C5 spinal segments, friend would intend that he

A) could be can not to breath on his own.

B) might walk without difficulty.

C) would have actually full variety of movement in all extremities.

D) would certainly be in a coma.

E) would certainly have difficulty chewing and also moving the tongue.


60) as the ________ nerve approaches the knee, it divides right into two branches, the fibular nerve and also the tibial nerve.

A) perineal

B) femoral

C) brachial

D) pudendal

E) sciatic


61) mar is in an auto accident and also suffers a spinal cord injury. She has actually lost feeling in her lower body. Her doctor tells she that ede is compressing a part of her spinal cord. Which component of she cord is likely to be compressed?

A) the anterior gray horns

B) the anterior gray commissures

C) ascending tracts

D) descending tracts

E) the anterior white commissures


62) The brachial plexus offers rise to every one of the adhering to nerves except the

A) radial.

B) median.

C) ulnar.

D) musculocutaneous.

E) phrenic.


73) recognized neuronal circuit patterns include every one of the following except

A) convergent.

B) divergent.

C) multipolar.

D) reverberating.

E) parallel processing.


74) You room sitting at a mexican restaurant waiting for her food. The waiter brings a very hot plate, telling you to be careful about touching it. Girlfriend touch that anyway, developing a pain sensation in her fingers, a withdrawal of your hand, and an auditory comment that what you space thinking. This scenario represents a ________ neuronal circuit.

A) parallel

B) reverberation

C) serial

D) convergent

E) consensual


75) all of the complying with are true of neural reflexes other than that they

A) are automatic engine responses.

B) space the simplest form of behavior.

C) help preserve homeostasis.

D) can not be modified by the brain.

E) involve at the very least two neurons


76) Reflexes based upon synapses developed during breakthrough are ________ reflexes.

A) visceral

B) innate

C) acquired

D) somatic

E) vegetative


77) Reflexes can be classified follow to every one of the adhering to except

A) their development.

B) where info processing occurs.

C) the motor response.

D) the complexity of the neural circuit.

E) even if it is they are sensory or motor.


78) all of the complying with are true the muscle spindles other than that they

A) are found within skeletal muscle.

B) consist of of devoted fibers called intrafusal fibers.

C) are uncovered in tendons.

D) room the receptor because that the large reflex.

E) room innervated by gamma motor neurons.


79) The reflex that avoids a muscle from exerting too much tension is the ________ reflex.

A) stretch

B) tendon

C) flexor

D) overcome extensor

E) reciprocal


80) Spinal interneurons inhibit antagonist engine neurons in a procedure called

A) a crossed extensor reflex.

B) a big reflex.

C) a tendon reflex.

D) mutual inhibition.

E) reverberating circuits.


81) The ________ reflex complements the flexor reflex by activating contralateral muscles.

A) stretch

B) tendon

C) flexor

D) crossed extensor

E) reciprocal


82) The flexor reflex

A) stays clear of a muscle from overstretching.

B) stays clear of a muscle from generating damaging tension.

C) move a limb away from a painful stimulus.

D) usually depends on cranial neurons.

E) is an example of a monosynaptic reflex.


83) In i m sorry of the adhering to would the hold-up between economic stimulation and response be greater?

A) a monosynaptic reflex

B) a polysynaptic reflex


84) i beg your pardon statement is false about reflexes?

A) Reflex responses can readjust over time.

B) You have no aware control or modification capability over reflex action.

C) some reflex responses space hereditary.

D) Reflex responses can be intensified by repetition.

E) all of the above statements are true; there room no false statements.


85) Tina drops while climb a tree and also lands on she back. Her frightened parental take her to the emergency room, wherein she is examined. Her knee-jerk reflex is normal and she exhibits a plantar reflex (negative Babinski reflex). This results suggest that Tina has

A) injured among her diminish nerve tracts.

B) injured among her ascending nerve tracts.

C) a spinal injury in the lumbar region.

D) a spinal injury in the cervical region.

E) endured no damages to her spinal cord.


86) i m sorry of the complying with is not true about a confident Babinski reflex?

A) regular in newborns

B) abnormal in adults

C) a sign of injury to descending spinal tracts

D) why you close her eyes as soon as you sneeze

E) flaring that the toes as soon as the sole is stroked


1) The dura mater tapers inferiorly to type the

A) coccygeal ligament.

B) conus medullaris.

C) cauda equine.

D) subarachnoid space.

E) denticulum latum.


2) The problem in i m sorry a person loses every feeling and movement the the arms and legs due to spinal cord injury is termed

A) paraplegia.

B) hemiplegia.

C) spinal shock.

D) quadriplegia.

E) spinal transection.


3) The loss of feeling and also movement that the legs is termed

A) paraplegia.

B) hemiplegia.

C) spinal shock.

D) quadriplegia.

E) spinal transection.


4) The ________ separates the dura mater from the walls of the vertebral canal.

A) subdural space

B) subarachnoid space

C) epidural space

D) venous dural sinus

E) main canal


5) The dorsal root consists of ________ neurons.

A) sensory

B) motor

C) interneurons

D) efferent

E) unipolar


6) Blood vessels traveling in ~ the ________ space deliver oxygen and also nutrients come the spinal cord.

A) dura mater

B) central

C) epidural

D) subdural

E) subarachnoid


7) throughout the procedure recognized as a(n) ________, a needle is placed into the subarachnoid an are in the worse lumbar region.

A) EEG

B) encephalomyelogram

C) laminectomy

D) lumbar puncture

E) thoracic tap


8) The white ramus and the gray ramus collectively are referred to as the

A) spinal nerve.

B) rami communicantes.

C) meninges.

D) ganglia.

E) ascending tracts.


9) suppose that you feeling something brushing against your abdomen. The sensory details would be brought to the spinal cord over a(n) ________ ramus.

A) dorsal

B) sympathetic

C) lateral

D) ventral

E) ascending


10) The particular strip the skin the is innervated through a particular spinal nerve is referred to as a

A) rootlet.

B) ramus.

C) meninx.

D) ganglion.

E) dermatome.


11) A complex, interwoven network that nerves is dubbed a

A) dermatome.

B) ramus.

C) plexus.

D) ganglion.

E) tracts.


12) The nerve crucial for breathing the originates in ~ the cervical plexus is dubbed the ________ nerve.

A) brachial

B) phrenic

C) intercostal

D) ganglion

E) sciatic


13) In ________, one neuron synapses on number of postsynaptic neurons.

A) divergence

B) intercommunication

C) a plexus

D) a pool

E) convergence


14) Interneurons space organized right into functional groups called

A) neuronal pools.

B) plexi.

C) rami.

D) spindles.

E) perineuria.


15) The neural "wiring" the a solitary reflex is dubbed a(n)

A) reflex arc.

B) ramus.

C) ganglion.

D) tract.

E) intershoot.


16) ________ reflexes activate bones muscles.

A) Involuntary

B) Cranial

C) Spinal

D) Autonomic

E) Somatic


17) The most complicated spinal reflexes are called

A) collateral reflex arcs.

B) ipsilateral reflex arcs.

C) intersegmental reflex arcs.

D) dermatomes.

E) spinal plexuses.


18) Reflexes that activate muscle on the very same side of the body as the stimulus are called

A) contralateral.

B) ipsilateral.

C) commensual.

D) involuntary.

E) parasympathetic.


19) Reflexes the activate muscle on the opposite side of the body together the stimulus room called

A) contralateral.

B) ipsilateral.

C) commensual.

D) involuntary.

E) parasympathetic.


20) In a(n) ________ reflex, a sensory neuron synapses straight on a engine neuron.

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A) monosynaptic

B) ipsilateral

C) commensual

D) involuntary

E) polysynaptic


21) A(n) ________ reflex contends least one interneuron placed between the sensory and motor neurons.