Routing info Protocol (RIP) is a distance vector protocol that provides hop count as its primary metric. RIP defines how routers need to share information when relocating traffic amongst an interconnected team of local area networks (LANs).

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In the enterprise, open Shortest Path an initial (OSPF) routing has largely changed RIP as the most widely used inner Gateway Protocol (IGP). RIP has actually been supplanted mainly because of its simplicity and its i can not qualify to scale to very big and complex networks. Border gateway protocol (BGP) is another distance vector protocol the is currently used to deliver routing information across autonomous solution on the Internet.

Routing details Protocol was originally designed for Xerox PARC global Protocol and also was dubbed GWINFO in the Xerox Network equipment (XNS) protocol suite in 1981. RIP, i beg your pardon was identified in RFC 1058 in 1988, is well-known for being basic to configure and also easy to usage in tiny networks.

How Routing info Protocol (RIP) works

RIP provides a street vector algorithm to decide which path to placed a packet onto get to its destination. Every RIP router maintains a routing table, which is a perform of all the destinations the router knows exactly how to reach. Each router broadcasts its whole routing table come its closest next-door neighbors every 30 seconds. In this context,neighborsare the other routers come which a router is associated directly -- that is, the other routers top top the very same network segments as the selected router. The neighbors, in turn, pass the information on to their nearest neighbors, and also so on, until all RIP hosts within the network have the same expertise of routing paths. This shared understanding is well-known asconvergence.

If a router obtain an update on a route, and also the new path is shorter, that will update its table entry through the length and also next-hop deal with of the shorter path. If the brand-new path is longer, it will wait with a "hold-down" duration to check out if later updates reflect the higher value as well. It will just update the table entry if the new, longer path has actually been established to be stable.

If a router crashes or a network link is severed, the network discovers this due to the fact that that router stops sending out updates to its neighbors, or stop sending and receiving updates along the severed connection. If a offered route in the routing table isn"t updated across six successive update cycles (that is, for 180 seconds) a RIP router will drop the route and let the remainder of the network know around the problem through its own periodic updates.


There are three execution of the Routing info Protocol: RIPv1, RIPv2 and RIPng.

RIPv1-- standardized in 1988 -- is likewise called Classful Routing Protocol because it does no send subnet mask details in its routing updates. Top top the other hand, RIPv2 -- standardization in 1998 -- is called Classless Routing Protocol because it does send subnet mask information in the routing updates. RIPng is an extension of RIPv2 the was made to support IPv6.

In RIPv1, courses are decided based on the IP destination and also hop count. RIPv2 progressed this an approach and started to incorporate subnet masks and gateways. Furthermore, the routing table in RIPv1 is transfer to every station on the attached network whereas RIPv2 sends out the routing table come a multicast deal with in an initiative to minimize network traffic. Additionally, RIPv2 uses authentication for defense -- a feature lacking from RIPv1.


RIP operates on the applications layer that the OSI model. The configuration process for the Routing information Protocol is relatively simple. Once IP addresses have actually been assigned come the connected computers and also interfaces the routers, then developer can problem the router RIP command -- which speak the router to enable RIP -- adhered to by the network command -- which permits users to recognize which networks they desire to work with. Only the networks directly connected with the router need to be specified.

Users can likewise configure any kind of port to carry out the complying with actions:

prevent RIP packets from being sent out or received. Get packets in miscellaneous formats. Send packets formatted because that each of the various RIP versions come the RIPv1 broadcast address.
visual depiction of RIP

Features that RIP

RIP offers a modification hop count as a means to recognize network distance. Modified mirrors the truth that network engineers can assign courses a higher cost. Through default, if a router"s neighbor own a location network and can deliver packets straight to the destination network without using any other routers, that route has actually one hop. In network management terminology, this is described as a expense of one.

RIP enables only 15 hops in a path. If a packet can"t with a location in 15 hops, the destination is thought about unreachable. Paths have the right to be assigned a greater cost (as if they associated extra hops) if the enterprise wants to limit or discourage your use. Because that example, a satellite back-up link can be assigned a expense of 10 to force traffic come follow various other routes as soon as available.

RIP timers

Timers in RIP aid regulate performance. They include:

Update timer -- Frequency that routing updates. Every 30 secs IP RIP sends out a complete copy that its routing table, topic to break-up horizon. (Internetwork packet exchange RIP go this every 60 seconds.)

Invalid timer -- absence of refreshed contents in a routing update. RIP waits 180 secs to note a path as invalid and also immediately puts it into hold-down.

Hold-down timers and also triggered updates -- help with security of courses in the Cisco environment. Hold-downs for sure that constant update messages execute not inappropriately cause a routing loop. The router doesn"t plot on non-superior new information for a certain period of time. RIP"s hold-down time is 180 seconds.

Flush timer -- RIP waits secondary 240 seconds after hold-down before it actually gets rid of the route from the table.

Other stability attributes to assist with routing loops encompass poison reverse. A poison turning back is a way in i m sorry a gateway node tells its neighborhood gateways that among the gateways is no longer connected. To carry out this, the notifying gateway to adjust the number of hops come the unconnected gateway come a number that shows infinite, i beg your pardon in layman"s state simply way "You can"t gain there." since RIP permits up to 15 hops to another gateway, setup the hop count to 16 is the equivalent of "infinite."


Advantages the RIP include:

Feasible configuration easy to understand guarantee to support almost all routers

Additionally, RIP is preferred over revolution routes as result of its an easy configuration and also the reality that that does not require an update every time the topology changes. Unfortunately, the disadvantage of RIP is its increased network and processing overhead when contrasted to static routing.

Other disadvantages include:

Not constantly loop free Only equal-cost pack balancing is supported Pinhole congestion can take place big networks lead to slow convergence


While using RIP, users may run into various limitations. Because that example, the Routing info Protocol outcomes in increased network traffic due to the checks and also updates it performs on surrounding routers every 30 seconds. Furthermore, due to the fact that RIP just updates surrounding routers, updates because that non-neighboring routers have the right to be forgotten due to the fact that the info is not instantly accessible.

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Another limitation that RIP is the enforcement of a best hop count of 15. As a result, remote routers in big networks might not have the ability to be accessed or reached. Furthermore, the the next path might not it is in the shortest path. This is due to the fact that RIP does no take various determinants into consideration when calculating the shortest path.

RIP likewise stands for: raster picture processor

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