Factors the production method resources supplied in the process of manufacturing of commodities. There are of four species viz., land, labour, capital and organization or enterprise. Here, floor represents natural resources (such as soil, mineral deposits, seas, rivers, natural forests, fisheries etc). Labour represents human being resources. Together, these two components are dubbed the‘primary factors of production’.

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These 2 factors produce some devices of goods for the purpose of consumption. And also as usage of these products takes place, there is the possibility of some of these goods acquiring left over. Thus, saving is manufacturing minus consumption. This conserved amount is referred to as as capital, which serves as invest in the manufacturing process. Also, organization or companies is a special kind of labour. The third and the fourth components are called‘secondary determinants of production’.

These four components depend on every other. They have a coordinated affect on manufacturing of goods and services.

1. Land

In plain sense ‘land’ describes the soil or the surface ar of the earth or ground. But, in Economics, land means all presents of Nature owned and also controlled by human beings which yield an income. Land is the original source of all product wealth. The economic prosperity that a country depends on the richness of her natural resources. The quality and also quantity of agriculturalwealth are figured out by the nature of soil, climate and rainfall.


The farming products are the communication of trade and industry. Sector survives on the availability of coal-mines or waterfall for electrical energy production. Hence, all aspects of financial life prefer agriculture, trade and industry are normally influenced by herbal resources i beg your pardon are referred to as as “Land” in economics.

Characteristics of Land

·Land is a primary aspect of production.

·Land is apassivefactor that production.

·Land is the totally free gift of Nature.

·Land has actually no expense of production.

·Land is fixed in supply. The is inelastic in supply.

·Land is permanent.

·Land is immovable.

·Land is heterogeneous together it differs in fertility.

·Land has different uses.

·Land is topic to regulation of Diminishing Returns.

2. Labour

Labour is the active factor that production. In usual parlance, labour way manual work or unskilled work. But in business economics the ax ‘labour’ has actually a more comprehensive meaning.


Itrefers to any kind of work undertaken because that securing an earnings or reward. Together work may be hand-operated or intellectual. For example, the work-related done through an farming worker or a chef or rickshaw puller or a mason is manual. The work-related of a medical professional or teacher or an technician is intellectual. In short, work in economics refers to any form of work performed through a labourer because that earning an income.

According come Marshall, work represents services noted by the element labour, which helps in yielding an revenue to the owner that the labour-power.

Characteristics of Labour

·Labour is the animate aspect of production.

·Labour is anactivefactor the production.

·Labour suggests several types: it may be hands-on (farmer) or pundit (teacher, lawyer etc).

·Labour is perishable.

·Labour is inseparable indigenous the Labourer.

·Labour is less mobile in between places and also occupations.

·Labour is a method as well together an end. The is both the reason of production and also consumer of the product.

·Labour units room heterogeneous.

·Labour differs in ability.

·Labour-supply identify its prize (wage).

·Labour has weak bargaining power.

3. Capital

Marshall says“capitalconsists of every kinds that wealth other than totally free giftsofnature,whichyieldincome”.Bohm-Bawerkdefines it as ‘a produced way of production’. As stated earlier, resources is a secondary way of production. It refers to that part of production which to represent ‘saving used as investment’ in the additional production process. For example, the whole mango is no eaten; a component of the (its nut) is offered to produce much more mangoes.


It is a share concept. All capital is wealth however all wide range is no capital. For example, tractor is a capital asset which can be offered in growing (production) of farm, but due to some reason the very same is retained unused (idle) for some period. It can not be termed as capital for the period. That is just wealth.

Characteristics that Capital

·Capital is a man-made factor.

·Capital is mobile between places and also persons.

·Capital is a passive variable of production.

·Capital’s it is provided is elastic.

·Capital’s need is a acquired demand.

·Capital is durable.

Capital may be tangible or intangible.For example, buildings, plants and machinery,factories, inventories that inputs, warehouses, roads, highways and so on are tangible capital. The examples for intangible funding are invest on advertisement, prices on cultivate programme etc.

Financial Capitalmeans the assets required by a firm to provide goods and also servicesmeasured in hatchet of money value . That is normally raised through debt and also equity worries .The element aim of the is to a mass wealth in terms of profit.

4. Organization

The man behind arranging the organization is referred to as as ‘Organizer’ or ‘Entrepreneur’. An organiser is the most vital factor that production. He to represent a special kind of labour. Joseph Schumpeter says that an business man innovates, coordinates other factors of production, plans and also runs a business. He not only runs the business, but bears the threat of business. His price is residual. This residual is either positive (profit) or an adverse (loss) or zero.


Functions of one Organizer (Entrepreneur)

Initiation:An organizer is the initiator of the business, by considering the situationand ease of access of resources and planning the entire process of company or production.

Innovation:A effective entrepreneur is always an innovator. He introduce newmethods in the production process.

Coordination:An organizer applies a particular combination of the factors ofproduction come start and also run the service or production.

Control, Direction and also Supervision:An organiser controls so the nothing avoids theorganisation indigenous achieving the goal. That directs the determinants to get far better results and supervises because that the efficient functioning of every the factors associated in the procedure of production.

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Risk-taking and Uncertainty-bearing:There room risk-taking and also uncertainty-bearingobstacles. Threats may it is in insured however uncertainties can not be insured. They alleviate the profit.