Read this article to learn about the adhering to three vital tools of jae won analysis, i.e., (a) Comparative financial Statements, (b) typical Size Statements, and also (c) tendency Ratios or Percentages.

1. Preparation of Comparative gaue won Statements:

Comparative jae won Statements describe the declaration of financial position of a business, i m sorry are all set in together a way as to provide a time perspective to the various elements embodied in the financial statements.

These statements incorporate two types of analytical statements. They room Comparative Balance Sheets and Comparative income Statement. In this statements figures are placed side by side for 2 or an ext periods in order to facilitate comparison.

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They likewise facilitate comparison amongst two or much more firms that belong to the same industry. Comparison may be regarding to profitability and financial soundness.

Preparation of Comparative financial Statements:

Comparative explanation mainly display the following information because that analytical purposes:

(a) really data in pure money values, as offered in the jae won statements for the periods under consideration.

(b) boosts or to reduce in assorted items in money values, and


(c) boosts or reduce in various items in regards to percentages

The following examples would highlight the method of preparation of a compare Balance Sheet and a Comparative revenue Statement through imaginary figures:



Tentative Conclusions:

Total solved assets have been added during the year 2002 by Rs.55 lakhs compared to 2001, for which permanent investments precious Rs.50 lakhs have been realized. The level of current assets worth Rs.42 lakhs has been reduced.


Despite the rise in addressed assets, the complete assets have been reduced by Rs.37 lakhs. It suggests that the enhancement to addressed assets has been partly financed by the sale or reduction of various other assets.

Increase in resolved assets and also decrease in present assets reflect a poor financial policy. The relationship between the complete current assets and also total present liabilities is not satisfactory.

Increase in the choice share capital of Rs.100 lakhs can have been as result of the fresh concern of shares because that the redemption of debentures. Also, the boost in reserves may represent the redemption that debentures the end of profits.

Comparative revenue Statement:


Similar come the to compare Balance Sheet, the Comparative earnings Statement has the exact same columns and supplies the same kind of information.

It is portrayed below:

The Comparative revenue Statement explains the relationship in between sales and cost of products sold and its result on pistol profit. Increase in marketing expenses and office and administration expenses relating come the increase in sale have to not it is in proportional.

This will certainly indicate plainly the effectiveness of operations by showing transforms in absolute numbers and also in state of portion of the operating profits from one duration to another.


The providers Act that India insists the companies need to give figures for various items for the previous year in addition to the current year’s figures in the Profit and also Loss account and Balance Sheet.




While network sales have actually increased through 33.33%, the cost of items sold has actually increased by 25%. The percentage of profits has increased through 50%. The increase in complete operating prices is 25% only, which has increased the net operating earnings by 56.25%. The as whole performance in 2002 is satisfactory contrasted to 2001.


The key limitation the Comparative jae won Statements is the they fail to show the transforms that have actually taken place from year to year in relationship to total assets, total liabilities and capital or full net sales. Common-size analysis eliminates this limitation.

2. Ready Common-Size Statements:

Common-size gaue won Statements space those explanation in i beg your pardon items reported in the financial statements are converted into percentages taking some usual base. In the Common-size revenue Statement, the net sales are assumed to it is in 100% and also other items room expressed as a percent of sales.

Similarly in the Common-size Balance sheet the total assets or complete liabilities are assumed to it is in 100% and other items of assets and liabilities room expressed as a portion of this full .

Common- size statements are additionally called as “Component Statements” or “100 per cent Statement” since each explain is diminished to the full of 100 and also each individual item is expressed together a portion of this total.



The ready of Common-size declare is portrayed below based on the imaginary numbers used in the examples of Comparative jae won Statements:




The percentage of solved assets to full assets enhanced from 58.83% in 2001 to 63% in 2002. At the very same time the portion of existing assets lessened from 30.47% to 28.31%. This shows a bad current assets monitoring policy.

The worth of investments has likewise decreased native 10.70% to 8.19%, which might be in order to finance the boost in addressed assets. The preference share capital has boosted from 10.70% to 16.37% and reserves from 10.69% to 13.64% but at the same time, the long-term and also the existing liabilities to total liabilities has actually come under from 51.87% come 42.72%.


Compared to total current liabilities the complete current assets are inadequate. Hence, the working funding position is not satisfactory. In basic the financial policy of the concern is highly unsatisfactory.



The gross profit percentage has actually increased indigenous 33.33 to 37.50. This boost is much more than proportionate contrasted to sales. This is because the boost in expense of products sold is less than proportional.

Similarly the net profit percent has also increased native 26.67 come 31.25. In general, the in its entirety operating performance of the service is extremely satisfactory.

3. Tendency Percentages or Ratios:

Trend evaluation refers to the to compare of past data end a duration of time through that the a basic year. Under this method, percent relationship that each declare item bears to the very same item in the base year is calculated.

Any year i.e., the faster year connected in comparison, or the latest year, or any kind of intervening year, might be taken as the base year. As the function of this evaluation is to to mark some essential changes, the trend percentages room calculated only for some important items that have the right to be associated with each other.


The pertained to item in the basic year is required to be same to as 100 and then based on this, tendency percentages because that the corresponding items in other years are calculated.

This technique is a horizontal form of analysis of jae won statements. The trend percentages are displayed in comparative jae won statements. Trend evaluation is a helpful tool for the management since it reduces huge amount of pure data into a basic and conveniently readable form. Through looking in ~ the trend in a details ratio one have the right to see whether the ratio is enhancing or diminish or staying constant. Indigenous this a trouble is uncovered and great management is observed.

Precautions to it is in taken:

1. The basic year selected need to be normal and be important representative of all years involved in the analysis.

2. The gaue won statements used for the analysis must have actually been prepared using consistent accountancy principles and practices.

3. The numbers of the various audit statements taken into consideration for the analysis should be adjusted for any kind of price level changes, as compared to basic year, prior to computing tendency percentages.


4. Trend percentages need to be studied in addition to the absolute figures on which they are based. This will permit us to understand whether the adjust is far-reaching or not.

For example, one items may boost from Rs.100 come Rs.200 and also the other item may adjust from Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 14,000 . Of these two, the change in the first item is not far-ranging compared come the second item.

The trend ratios because that the assets of a balance sheet space illustrated listed below with imaginary figures:



A separate tower for the base year <1999> need not be noted in the comparative balance sheet.


From the over statement the is clear that both the addressed assets and also current assets have actually registered raising trend. This is an indication the the company’s expansion over the period.

Similar come this analysis, tendency percentages deserve to be computed for the necessary items of the liabilities side of the balance sheet and also of the earnings Statement.

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Illustration 1:


Comment top top the far-ranging changes that have taken place throughout the year 2002.





Individual and total existing assets have reduced in 2002 when compared to 2001. The total current heritage have lessened by 34%. Invest have also decreased through 37%.

Amounts realized from the assets have been greatly used to repay existing liabilities and the balance provided for the acquisition of solved assets. Resolved assets, specifically buildings have increased significantly by 146% and also other heritage by 32%.

It is heartening to keep in mind that these assets have been funded v the issue of debentures through 63% and also equity and also surplus through 65%. Generally, over there is an as whole increase in complete assets in 2002 over 2001 only by 20%.

Illustration 2:

From the following Income declaration of abc Ltd., prepare a Comparative revenue Statement:

Income Statements because that the year finishing 31st December 2001 and 2002




Illustration 3:

Convert the adhering to Income statement into common Size Statement and interpret the alters in 2002 in the light of problems in 2001:




The evaluation of the above income statement enables to draw the following conclusions:

(a) during the year 2002 the price of goods sold has decreased by 4.5% i.e., from 60.7% come 56.2%. This decline may be as result of the decrease in price of raw materials. Fan to this decline, the gross benefit ratio has actually increased native 39.3% come 43.8%.

(b) The operating costs have declined by 2.3%, which shows high operation efficiency and also economy in expenditure; both administrative and selling expenses have decreased less than proportionately regardless of the rise in these items in pure amounts.

(c) The an unified effect of diminish in expense of products sold and operating prices has caused for rise in net operating earnings by 6.8% i.e., native 9.3% in 2001 to 16.1% in 2002.

(d) The increase in non-operating revenue is a welcome attribute while the corresponding increase in non-operating prices proportionately is no desirable.

As last conclusion, it may be said that the company has to be operating an ext efficiently in 2002 as compared to 2001.

Illustration 4:

From the following information, interpret the results of to work of a manufacturing issue using tendency ratios:





From the over statement, it is checked out that the sales, price of products sold and operating costs have decreased in 2000 when compared to basic year 1999. Yet one important suggest that the decrease in sales is comparatively less than the cost and also operating expenses.

On the other hand, the sales, cost and operating expenses have all increased in 2001 and also 2002 as contrasted tol999. But the rise in cost and also operating expenses is lesser 보다 the boost in sales.

As a conclusion we might infer from these trend ratios the a larger portion of cost of goods and operating prices is fixed and they are not affected by adjust in sales volume. Since of this, we find that the net operating profit is more in 2001 and also 2002 as contrasted to 1999.

Illustration 5:

Develop pro-forma revenue statement for the month of April, May and also June for a company from the following particulars:

(a) Sales room projected at Rs. 4, 50,000, Rs. 4, 80,000 and Rs. 5, 00,000 for April, May and also June respectively.

(b) expense of goods sold is Rs. 1, 00,000 plus 30% of offering price every month.

(c) rent is Rs. 15,000 per month. Administration expenses because that April are expected to it is in Rs. 1, 20,000 yet expected to climb 1% per month end the vault month’s expenses.