define the general molecular framework of carbohydrates, and identify your monomers and polymers; list the three subtypes of carbohydrates, and also describe their structure and also function.

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Carbohydrates (carbo- = “carbon”; hydrate = “water”) contain the aspects carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and also only those elements with a few exceptions. The ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen in carbohydrate molecule is 1:2:1. The ingredient carbon (C, carbo-) and the ingredient water (H20, -hydrate) provide the surname to this team of organic molecules.

Carbohydrates room classified into three subtypes: monosaccharides, (mono- = ”one”, “alone”; saccharide = “sugar, sweet”) disaccharides (di = “two”), and also polysaccharides. (poly- = “many, much”). Monosaccharides and also disaccharides are likewise called simple carbohydrates, and also are typically referred to together sugars. Straightforward carbohydrates are tiny polar molecules, containing number of –OH functional groups, which provides them hydrophilic (they dissolve fine in water). Polysaccharides, also called complex carbohydrates, are huge non polar molecules, and also they are not hydrophilic.

The figure listed below shows the most common monosaccharides: glucose, fructose and galactose (six-carbon monosaccharides), and ribose and also deoxyribose (five-carbon monosaccharides). Keep in mind that they space all called using the suffix –ose, which way sugar. Carbohydrates are frequently najajalger2018.org “somethingose”.

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Figure (PageIndex1) these monosaccharides respect the ratio 1:2:1 pointed out above: glucose (C6H12O6), furustos (C6H12O6), galactose (C6H12O6), ribose (C5H10O5), deoxyribose (C5H10O4, this one is missing an oxygen). Keep in mind that carbohydrates have actually lots of hydroxyl functional teams (-OH)

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Figure (PageIndex2) there are various ways to represent a glucose molecule (C6H12O6). 2 of the most usual are straight-chain kind (left) and also ring form (right). Carbon atom in the vertices are not shown.

Disaccharides kind by a covalent bond between two monosaccharides. This form of bond between two monosaccharides is referred to as a glycosidic bond, and also energy is neededto type it.

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Figure (PageIndex3) The disaccharide sucrose is created when a monomer of glucose and a monomer the fructose join in a dehydration synthesis reaction to form a glycosidic bond. In the process, a water molecule is shed (not presented in the figure). The lost water molecule is created by -OH and also -H presented in red. Oxygen develops covalent bonds through glucose top top the left, and fructose top top the right.

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Figure (PageIndex4) The most usual disaccharides: sucrose (C12H22O11), lactose (C12H22O11), and maltose (C12H22O11)

Polysaccharides room macromolecules composed of repetitive units of the same building block, monosaccharides, likewise to a pearl necklace is created of countless pearls. We can also define polysaccharides together polymers assembled from plenty of smaller covalently external inspection monomers. As displayed in the Figures and also Table below, three necessary polysaccharides in life organisms room glycogen, starch and also cellulose. Glycogen and starch are provided as energy stores in animal and also plant cell respectively, if cellulose gives structural assistance in plants and also fiber to our diets.

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