You are watching: What elements are gases at room temperature

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(a) hard O2 has a addressed volume and shape, and the molecules space packed tightly together. (b) liquid O2 conforms to the form of its container however has a fixed volume; the contains relatively densely packed molecules. (c) gas O2 filling its container completely—regardless that the container’s size or shape—and consists of commonly separated molecules.


The state that a provided substance counts strongly on conditions. For example, H2O is typically found in all three states: heavy ice, liquid water, and water vapor (its gas form). Under many conditions, we encounter water as the liquid that is essential for life; us drink it, cook with it, and also bathe in it. As soon as the temperature is cold enough to transform the liquid to ice, we have the right to ski or ice skating on it, fill it into a snowball or eye cone, and also even construct dwellings v it. Water vaporThe difference between a gas and also a vapor is subtle: the ax vapor refers to the gaseous type of a substance that is a fluid or a heavy under normal conditions (25°C, 1.0 atm). Nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) are for this reason referred to as gases, but gaseous water in the setting is called water vapor. Is a ingredient of the air us breathe, and it is developed whenever we warmth water for cooking food or do coffee or tea. Water vapor in ~ temperatures better than 100°C is dubbed steam. Heavy steam is supplied to drive big machinery, including turbines that generate electricity. The nature of the three says of water room summarized in Table 10.1.1


Table 10.1.1 nature of Water at 1.0 atm

Temperature State density (g/cm3)
≤0°C solid (ice) 0.9167 (at 0.0°C)
0°C–100°C liquid (water) 0.9997 (at 4.0°C)
≥100°C vapor (steam) 0.005476 (at 127°C)

The geometric structure and the physical and jajalger2018.orgical nature of atoms, ions, and molecules usually execute not count on your physical state; the individual water molecules in ice, liquid water, and also steam, for example, space all identical. In contrast, the macroscopic properties of a substance count strongly top top its physical state, i beg your pardon is established by intermolecular forces and also conditions such as temperature and pressure.

Figure 10.1.2 mirrors the locations in the periodic table of those elements that are generally found in the gaseous, liquid, and also solid states. Other than for hydrogen, the facets that occur naturally as gases space on the appropriate side of the routine table. That these, all the noble gases (group 18) room monatomic gases, vice versa, the other gaseous aspects are diatomic molecule (H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2). Oxygen can also kind a second allotrope, the highly reactive triatomic molecule ozone (O3), which is likewise a gas. In contrast, bromine (as Br2) and also mercury (Hg) space liquids under normal conditions (25°C and also 1.0 atm, frequently referred to as “room temperature and pressure”). Gallium (Ga), which melts at only 29.76°C, have the right to be converted to a liquid merely by holding a container of the in her hand or keeping it in a non-air-conditioned room top top a warm summer day. The remainder of the elements are every solids under regular conditions.


Figure 10.1.2 elements That take place Naturally together Gases, Liquids, and also Solids at 25°C and also 1 atm

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