Just together there room rules the grammar in composition,there room rules that graphing that aid to visualize data because that youraudience. A well-designed graph should not need lot explanation becausethe graph itself should make the fads in the data visually apparent. A well-designed graph also doesn"t need any unnecessary decoration that doesn"t convey valuable information, such as depth top top bars in a 2-D plot. Every of the following terms tote animportant meaning.

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## Dependent and also Independent Variables

Imagine the we desire to do a graph the the amountof rainfall the occurs at different times the year. Rainfall dependson time of year, yet time the year go not rely on rainfall.Therefore, rainfall is the dependent variable and also time that yearis the live independence variable. In some graphs, girlfriend may have actually morethan one dependence variable, however never an ext than one independentvariable. Because that example, you may overlap plots of rainfall in thedesert and rainfall in the tropics versus time the year, or you couldgraph customs of rainfall in 2005 and 2006 against time ofyear.

## The Axes

The independent change belongs top top the x-axis(horizontal line) that the graph and the dependent variable belongs onthe y-axis (vertical line). The x and y axes cross at a pointreferred to together the origin, wherein the coordinates are (0,0). Ingraphs with only positive worths for x and y, the beginning is in thelower left corner.

## The Scale

Each axis needs a range to display the variety of thedata on the axis. The low end of the scale might be zero or a roundnumber worth slightly smaller sized than the the smallest data point. The highend that the range is typically a round number value slightly larger thanthe biggest data point. The scale is measured off in major and minortick marks. Commonly the range runs from low to high ineasily count multiples prefer 10s, 50s, 100s, etc. When graphs are compared side-by-side, consider scaling them come the very same data selection to do comparisons easier.

## The Axis Labels

Each axis demands a descriptive axis labelindicating which change is represented. Because that example, the y-axislabel could read "Total Rainfall" and the x-axis label can read"Month"

## The Units

If you room measuring time, friend must encompass theunits and the numeric values so world will know if you aretalking around seconds, minutes, hours, days, years, etc. If you aremeasuring rainfall, people won"t know if you average inches,millimeters, gallons, etc. Uneven you include the units. Units shouldbe reported adhering to the axis label, as in "Total Rainfall(inches)."

## The Data Points

Typically, each independent measurement to represent a point on the graph. If there room multiple data sets gift plotted ~ above the very same graph, each collection should be stood for by a distinctive symbol.

## The Lines

Should you attach the data points v a line? typically the price is correct if the data clues are component of a series of measurements of the same thing end a duration of time, because that example. The implication is the the values perform not drop earlier to zero in between measurements. However, if you space graphing a scatterplot, you could do a trendline or regression line with the points, yet would not connect each one. In part cases, the relationship may not it is in linear, yet exponential or logarithmic, or some other mathematical function, for this reason a curve might be an ext appropriate 보다 a line. However, there must be a factor why a details curve is chosen.

## The Legend

The legend becomes crucial when you are graphingmore 보다 one dependent variable. For example, your legend mightindicate that environment-friendly lines or bars represent rainfall in the tropicswhile brown lines or bars stand for rainfall in the desertregion.

## Use of Color

Colors or patterns need to be offered to aid conveyinformation, yet should no be used just for decoration. In theprevious example, why to be green and brown chosen? If the colour werereversed, would this be better or worse? Why?

## Which visual Representation?

The form of data you are presenting might be bettersuited because that one type of graph 보다 another. For example, if yourmeasurements are regular samples that an recurring event, choose rainfalleach day, then a line through points helps to convey the message. If onthe other hand, you are an initial averaging across distinct units of timelike months, climate bars might work better. If you are trying tovisually screen the piece of a whole, a piechart might be a goodchoice.

## Error Bars

Each suggest on the graph could represent a single data point, or the average of a arsenal of measurements at the point. In that case, it would certainly be appropriate to to express the variety of variation approximately that point. Typically the error around the median is expressed as the standard deviation, yet with small sample sizes, the traditional error is sometimes used.

## The Title

The title should be a brief statement describingthe topic of the graph, yet should not explain or translate theresults.

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## What no to include

The graph must only include aspects that boost the interpretation, and there must be a minimum of visual adornment. For example, bars need to not be 3-D uneven the 3rd dimension add to information.

## How have the right to a graph it is in graded? Here"s a sample rubric:

article Rubric point out Dependent variable 0=absent 1=present yet incomplete 2=present and also complete Independent change 0=absent 1=present yet incomplete 2=present and complete Axes 0=absent 1=present yet incomplete 2=present and complete scale 0=absent 1=present however incomplete 2=present and also complete Axis labels 0=absent 1=present but incomplete 2=present and complete units 0=absent 1=present however incomplete 2=present and also complete Legend (if needed) 0=absent 1=present however incomplete 2=present and complete use of shade 0=absent 1=present yet incomplete 2=present and also complete Visual depiction 0=absent 1=present but incomplete 2=present and complete title 0=absent 1=present however incomplete 2=present and also complete Resources: how to make a graph in Microsoft Excel Download this example: rainfall.xls References: