The info processing cycle, in the context of computers and also computer processing, has 4 stages: input, processing, output and storage (IPOS). However, at some levels in ~ a computer, part processing devices actually just use 3 of these stages -- input, processing and also output -- without the have to store data. Every of this stages plays crucial role in the collection, analysis and distribution actions performed by a computer system.

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Data must get in a system prior to it can be processed into either save on computer data or information output. The input stage of IPOS provides the way and mechanisms with which data start the IPOS model. Some experts believe the input process itself might be split into as numerous as 3 stages: collection, preparation and also input. However, the basic view that the input phase is the data is input into a mechanism using some form of an intake device.

An input maker is maybe to collection data at its source or allude of measurement. The source of data entered into the device by a person is with a keyboard, microphone or perhaps also the activity of eye or another body part. Other forms of intake devices, such as thermometers, sensors and also clocks, likewise meet the general meaning of entry devices. The input phase of IPOS could likewise be referred to as the encoding stage.


Once data enters the IPOS model, that is processed into either save on computer data or information. The handling agent is commonly some kind of software or firmware, through a particular action taken on a particular kind of data. In a portable or desktop computer computer, it is typical for the processing agent to be energetic even prior to the data enters. In fact, that is additionally common because that the processing software to inquiry data and also guide its input process.

Processing can range from fairly small and an easy to very big and complex. Regardless, the sole purpose of the handling stage is to convert the raw input data right into a kind that can be stored for later on use or carry out information output for further processing or interpretation.


Output processing in IPOS sends information to a display screen, a printer, a plotter, a speak or some other medium that person senses can interpret. However, the output stage can store the data in a brand-new format or transform the handle data into an intake to one more IPOS module as well. For most users, output method either a display on a monitor display screen or a printed paper or graphic. Output can likewise mean data, details or coding.

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The storage phase of IPOS have the right to occur straight from or come the handling or the calculation stages. The warehouse stage have the right to serve as a pseudo-input or pseudo-output stage for the handling stage. The processing stage may need to save data for later on use or recall previously stored data because that processing brand-new data indigenous the entry stage. The output stage might store processed data as info for screen by another IPOS module as soon as needed. The storage phase does not only store data or details on a resolved storage medium, such together a tough disk, yet can likewise store data and also information top top removable media, such as a speed drive, CD-ROM or DVD.

Ron Price, MBA, has actually extensive an elderly level endure in business, info technology, and education. Under his pen surname Ron Gilster, Price has written over 40 publications for several leading publishers on a topics ranging from business and also finance to IT certifications to real estate.