varieties of necessary Molecules Monomers Polymers
Carbohydrates Simple Carbohydrates

or monocarbohydrates

(glucose)

Complex Carbohydrate

or polycarbohydrates

(starch)

Lipids Fatty acids Saturated fats

Polyunsaturated fats

Amino Acids Amino Acids Peptides & Proteins
nucleic Acids main point Acids DNA & RNA

III). Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates save on computer carbon, hydrogen, and also oxygen.

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Carbohydrates provide readily easily used cellular fuel.

A). Monosaccharide

GLUCOSE: C6H12O6

*

http://www.biochem.arizona.edu/classes/bioc462/

B). Disaccharide

C). Polysaccharide

IV). Lipids

Lipids are organic link that room insoluble in water yet are dissolve in various other lipids.

A). NeutralFats

3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol = triglyceride

*

http://biology.unm.edu/ccouncil/Biology_124/Summaries/Macromol.html


*
http://www.nature.com/horizon/
*
http://www.search.com/reference/Trans_fat

B). Saturation fats and polyunsaturated fats

Saturated fats: just singlecovalent bonds.

Polyunsaturated fats: dual or triple bonds.

cis
trans

C). Phospholipids

The tail is nonpolar the head ispolar.

*

http://nanopedia.case.edu/NWPage.php?page=cell.membranes

D).Steroids

*

V). Protein

Chains that amino acids attached by peptides bonds

A). aminoacids.

*

http://www.hcc.mnscu.edu/chem/V.27/page_id_17100.html

AMINO ACIDS

(monomer)

PEPTIDES

(several amino acids)

PROTEINS

(many peptides)

B). Fibrous and globular proteins

fibrous = structural proteins

globular = useful proteins

C). Structurelevel that proteins:

i). Primary structure:

ii). Secondary structure:

iii). Tertiary structure:

iv). Quaternary structure:


Protein geometry


Proteins have actually a details geometry like a key in a lock

The framework is the result of the certain arrangement the amino acids (primary structure)

D). Enzymes

Enzymes room globular proteins that act together biochemical catalysts.

They sometimes contain a non-protein component such together a metal (cofactor) or a vitamin (coenzyme)

Enzyme function


enzyme reactions


i). The enzyme binds the substrate.

At a very particular active site

ii). The enzyme-substrate facility undergoes an interior changethat forms the product

iii). Releases the product; cost-free to attach to another substrate

VI). Nucleic Acids

A). Structure

B). The 2 major classes include

Nucleotide groups for DNA & RNA

DNA

RNA
Adenine Adenine
Guanine Guanine
Cytosine Cytosine
Thymine Uracil
C). Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

ATP is one t includes a high energy phosphate bond.

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Chemical power is stored in this high power bond and released once the cell demands energy.