varieties of necessary Molecules Monomers Polymers
Carbohydrates Simple Carbohydrates

or monocarbohydrates


Complex Carbohydrate

or polycarbohydrates


Lipids Fatty acids Saturated fats

Polyunsaturated fats

Amino Acids Amino Acids Peptides & Proteins
nucleic Acids main point Acids DNA & RNA

III). Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates save on computer carbon, hydrogen, and also oxygen.

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Carbohydrates provide readily easily used cellular fuel.

A). Monosaccharide



B). Disaccharide

C). Polysaccharide

IV). Lipids

Lipids are organic link that room insoluble in water yet are dissolve in various other lipids.

A). NeutralFats

3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol = triglyceride



B). Saturation fats and polyunsaturated fats

Saturated fats: just singlecovalent bonds.

Polyunsaturated fats: dual or triple bonds.


C). Phospholipids

The tail is nonpolar the head ispolar.




V). Protein

Chains that amino acids attached by peptides bonds

A). aminoacids.





(several amino acids)


(many peptides)

B). Fibrous and globular proteins

fibrous = structural proteins

globular = useful proteins

C). Structurelevel that proteins:

i). Primary structure:

ii). Secondary structure:

iii). Tertiary structure:

iv). Quaternary structure:

Protein geometry

Proteins have actually a details geometry like a key in a lock

The framework is the result of the certain arrangement the amino acids (primary structure)

D). Enzymes

Enzymes room globular proteins that act together biochemical catalysts.

They sometimes contain a non-protein component such together a metal (cofactor) or a vitamin (coenzyme)

Enzyme function

enzyme reactions

i). The enzyme binds the substrate.

At a very particular active site

ii). The enzyme-substrate facility undergoes an interior changethat forms the product

iii). Releases the product; cost-free to attach to another substrate

VI). Nucleic Acids

A). Structure

B). The 2 major classes include

Nucleotide groups for DNA & RNA


Adenine Adenine
Guanine Guanine
Cytosine Cytosine
Thymine Uracil
C). Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

ATP is one t includes a high energy phosphate bond.

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Chemical power is stored in this high power bond and released once the cell demands energy.