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You are watching: What is the shortest stage of mitosis

StatPearls . Endowment Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-.


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Genetics, Mitosis

Ibraheem Rehman; Aaishwariya Gulani; Mustafa Farooq; Brittany Simpson.

Author Information

Introduction

The ability to blee is one trait that sets living organisms apart from nonliving matter. The circulation of life is based on cell department or the reproduction that cells. Cell division can beat a different function in various organisms. Because that example, as soon as a prokaryotes cell usually divides, the has completely reproduced since it gives rise come a brand-new organism. However, in multicell eukaryotes, mitotic cell department is mostly used for growth and also replacement or repair of injured cells. Many cell division results in genetically similar daughter cells.  First, a dividing cell replicates that is DNA. After a selection of steps, the cabinet divides via motisis and also cytokinesis. Mitosis is one part of the cabinet cycle, which is in-depth below. <1><2><3>


Cellular

The entirety of a cell’s DNA is dubbed its genome. Throughout cell division, the entirety genome is replicated exactly and distributed come 2 daughter cells. A person cell generally has about 2 meters of DNA. Due to the enormous length, the DNA need to be extremely condensed to fit into the cell nucleus of every cell. The highly condensed packages that DNA space termed chromosomes when the cell has actually completed the synthetic phase and is ready to experience mitosis. Assorted proteins assist the DNA in urgent compactly into subunits the nucleosomes and chromatin. Person somatic cells have actually 2 to adjust of 23 chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes - 22 sets of autosomes and 1 set of sex chromosomes. A single set of chromsomes is inherited from each parent.<4><5><6> DNA packaging is disputed in a various StatPearls evaluate - Genetics, DNA Packaging and also Genetics, Histone Code.


Mechanism

The mitotic phase is commonly the shortest part of any kind of cell cycle. The largest section of the cell cycle, interphase, provides up 90% that a cell"s life cycle, and also is the phase for growing and also performing the moving functions particular to the cell. The interphase is further divided into two G phases- G1 and G2- and also an S phase. During these phases, the cabinet grows by creating various proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. During the S phase, the cabinet replicates that is genome in ready for cell division or mitosis. Mitosis occurs during M phase, which wake up after interphase. <7>

Phases

Mitosis is traditionally divided right into 5 phases, which encompass prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and also telophase and also cytokinesis. In interphase, a atom envelope surrounding the nucleus, the DNA is replicated in the S phase, and the sisters chromatids sign up with together at the main portion that the chromosome - the centromere. To organize the chromsome movement in the cabinet to help make division efficient and ensure all material is present in both daughter cells, the cell has centrosomes at each pole of the cell. Centrosomes organize the fibers of the mitotic spindle throughout mitosis the will aid pull the sister chromatids apart.

In prophase, the chromatin fibers condense into chromosomes that space visible through a irradiate microscope, each replicated chromosome shows up as two the same sister chromatids join at your centromeres, and the mitotic spindle starts to form. Also, the centrosomes begin to move to the opposite poles of the cell, and they are pushed by the lengthening microtubules between them.

In prometaphase, the nuclear envelope falls apart; microtubules deserve to now invade the atom area and also bind to several of the chromosomes. The microtubules bind at the kinetochores, specialized protein frameworks at the centromere. No all microtubules communicate with kinetochores. Some microtubules interact with microtubules extending from the various other side the the cell.

In metaphase, the centrosomes have actually migrated to opposite poles that the cell. The chromosomes have actually all lined up in ~ the metaphase plate in the center of the cell, and also all chromosomes are attached come microtubules with their kinetochores. The metaphase plate is an imaginary line equidistant indigenous the spindle’s 2 poles.

In anaphase, the shortest stage of mitosis, the sister chromatids break apart, and the chromosomes begin moving to opposite end of the cell. Through the finish of anaphase, the 2 halves that the cell have actually an equivalent collection the chromosomes.

In telophase, 2 daughter nuclei form. The atom envelope us to reappear. DNA starts to de-condense while spindle microtubules begin to depolymerize. Mitosis, the division of one nucleus into 2, is currently complete. Lastly, cytokinesis, which is the department of the cytoplasm, takes place and the cabinet divides right into 2 different cells. In animal cells, this is achieved through a cleavage furrow the pinches the cabinet in 2.

Regulation 

Throughout mitosis, details checkpoints are essential to the extension of the process. If certain conditions room not met, mitosis halts. If any of this checkpoints space bypassed without being complete, specific pathology, such together cancer, can occur.<8><9>

There space three main checkpoints in mitosis, and those incorporate the G1/S checkpoint, G2/M, and also metaphase/ anaphase checkpoint. Throughout the G1/S checkpoint, additionally known as the restriction checkpoint, main influencers of cell cycle progression include growth factors, DNA damage, cell size, and cell nutrition.  The G2/M checkpoint, likewise known together the DNA replication checkpoint, is influenced by improper DNA replication or DNA damage. The third checkpoint, likewise known together the spindle device checkpoint, is inflienced by attachment of the mitotic spindle to every chromosomes. Only once all sisters chromatids have been bound will mitosis proceed right into anaphase.

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Cell Types 

It is essential to recognize that cells deserve to progress v the cabinet cycle in different manners. Cells can withdraw native the active cell cycle, and also exist in a non-proliferating or quiescent state. These cells are said to be in the G0 phase. Throughout G1, a cells decide to stay in G1 or leave the active cell cycle and enter right into the G0 phase. Various cell types are classified below on their characteristic cell cycle progressions. <11>

Labile cell varieties are cell that are constantly proliferating, via stem cells, in stimulate to change cells that have died or sloughed off. Some examples of labile cell varieties include skin epithelium, cradle epithelium, salivary gland tissue, and also hematopoietic cabinet types. That is crucial to recognize that chemotherapy provided in cancer treaments has toxic effects versus healthy cells, particularly cells undergoind rapid renewal.<12>

Quiescent or stable cell varieties are usually in a non- splitting state, yet may get in the cell cycle  in respons to certain stimuli. Examples of secure cell varieties include: lymphocytes, hepatocytes, endothelial cells, and others. 

Finally, irreversible cell species are unable to proliferate, and are thought about non- dividing. Examples of irreversible cell varieties include cardiac and also skeletal muscle. <13>