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Although Mali is just one of the largest countries in Africa, it has actually a reasonably small population, which is mostly centred along the Niger River. The Bambara (Bamana) country group and also language predominate, through several various other groups—including the Fulani (Fulbe), Dogon, and Tuareg—also current in the population. Agriculture is the dominant economic sector in the country, with cotton production, cattle and also camel herding, and fishing among the significant activities.


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The area that is now Mali to be once part of the three good precolonial Sudanic empires: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. The fabled but now faded trading and learning center of Timbuktu is located in Mali ~ above the top Niger River. Because that centuries, caravans crossed the Sahara desert from north Africa while others come from the forest regions come the south, conference at the crossroads of Timbuktu. Other notable towns incorporate Djenné, listed for its famed mosque and other examples of Sudanese architecture, and also Mopti, a bustling industry centre. The Dogon region, centred top top the Bandiagara escarpment in the country’s central area, is an important tourist destination because of its distinctive cliffside villages and also diverse imaginative life. The nationwide capital, Bamako, is situated on the Niger River and also is a rapidly farming city due to the fact that of increased migration native the depression rural areas.


Bamako
Bamako, Mali.
Arensond

Land

Mali is bounded top top the north by Algeria, on the east by Niger and also Burkina Faso, on the southern by Côte d’Ivoire and Guinea, and on the west by Senegal and Mauritania.


Physical attributes of MaliEncyclopædia jajalger2018.org, Inc.

Relief

Mali’s landscape is mainly flat and monotonous. Two straightforward relief attributes can be distinguished: plateaus and plains, which room crossed by 2 of Africa’s significant river systems, the Niger and the Sénégal. The highland regions are localized and discontinuous.

The plateaus that the south and also southwest (extensions that the Fouta Djallon highlands the Guinea and also the Guinea Highlands the Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire) lie between about 1,000 and also 1,600 feet (300 and also 500 metres) over sea level but attain heights pull close 2,000 feet (600 metres) in the Mandingue Plateau near Bamako and more than 2,100 feet (640 metres) near Satadougou.

The plateaus of the southeast and east, likewise extensions of the Guinea Highlands, space a collection of small, damaged hills. Elevations in the southeast variety between nearly 1,000 feet (300 metres) roughly Sikasso and 1,740 feet (530 metres) at mount Mina. Eastern of the Niger river the Dogon Plateau descends gently westward come the river valley yet ends in abrupt cliffs on the southeast. This cliffs with an key approaching 3,300 feet (1,000 metres) at Bandiagara. Northwest the the region is the country’s greatest point, mountain Hombori Tondo, which rises to a height of 3,789 feet (1,155 metres).

Northern and main Mali are consisted of of the levels of the Niger flow basin and also of the Sahara. The only marked relief feature in the phibìc is the Iforas Massif. An expansion of the such as mountain Hoggar an ar of the Sahara, this heavily eroded sandstone plateau rises come elevations of an ext than 2,000 feet.

Drainage and also soils

With the exemption of part intermittent streams in the northeast, Mali’s drainage system consists entirely the the Sénégal and Niger rivers and their tributaries. The Sénégal device flows in a northwesterly direction across western Mali for around 420 miles (670 km) on its course to the Atlantic Ocean. One of its main headstreams, the Bakoye River, rises in the Fouta Djallon, when another, the Bafing River, rises farther come the east; they sign up with at Bafoulabé to form the Sénégal. The river continues flowing northwest and then west roughly the Mandingue Plateau, damaged along the method by falls at Gouina and also Félou, prior to exiting Mali.


The Niger river flows through Mali because that slightly an ext than 1,000 mile (1,600 km), around two-fifths the the river’s full length. The rises in the Fouta Djallon and is of far-ranging size by the time it start the nation near Kangaba. It operation to the northeast across the Mandingue Plateau, its course interrupted by falls and also a dam in ~ Sotuba. Getting to Koulikoro, it spreads out in a wide valley and also flows majestically to its confluence through the Bani river at Mopti. The Niger then forms an interior delta, due to the fact that the floor is flat and also the river’s gradient almost nonexistent. The river breaks down right into a network of branches and lakes together it proceeds northward and, at Kabara, eastward. At Bourem the Niger provides a an excellent turn to the southeast, well-known as the Niger Bend, and also flows previous Gao and also Ansongo to the Niger border at Labbezanga.


The soils outside the Niger valley in Mali are poor. In the south, ferruginous (iron-bearing) soils room shallow and kind a hard, red crust because of intense evaporation. The desert region is composed of sand, rock, and gravel.

Climate

Mali lies in ~ the intertropical zone and has a hot, dried climate, through the sun close to its zenit throughout many of the year. In general, there are two unique seasons, dry and wet. The dried season, which lasts from November to June, is significant by short humidity and also high temperatures and also is influenced by the alize and also harmattan winds. The alize blows native the northeast indigenous November come January and causes a relatively cool spell, with temperatures averaging 77 °F (25 °C). Native March to June the harmattan, a dry, hot wind the blows indigenous the east out that the Sahara, sweeps the soil into dusty whirlwinds and is accompanied by daytime temperatures of about 104 come 113 °F (40 come 45 °C).

During the rainy season, from June to October, the monsoon wind blows native the southwest. Preceded by huge black clouds, the hefty rainstorms often include gusty winds and much lightning and also thunder. Temperatures space somewhat lower in August, when many of the rainfall occurs.

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The country can be separated into three climatic zones—the Sudanic, the Sahelian, and the desert zones. Sudanic climate wake up in about one-third that the country, from the southerly border to latitude 15° N. The is defined by an yearly rainfall the 20 come 55 inches (510 to 1,400 mm) and also average temperature of 75 come 86 °F (24 to 30 °C). The Sahel, or the area bordering the Sahara, receives between 8 and also 20 customs (200 and 510 mm) the rain per year and also has average temperatures in between 73 and also 97 °F (23 and also 36 °C). In the desert (Sahara), temperatures throughout the day selection from 117 to nearly 140 °F (47 come 60 °C), while in ~ night the temperature drops come 39 come 41 °F (4 come 5 °C).