As the HCFC refrigerant R22 (ODP = 0.05) is welcomed only as a transitional solution, a number of chlorine-free (ODP = 0) alternatives have been developed and tested extensively. They room being used for a big range of applications.

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Experience shows, however, that none of these substitutes deserve to replace the refrigerant R22 in every respects. Among others there are distinctions in the volumetric refrigerating capacity, constraints in possible applications, special requirements in system design and also considerably differing pressure levels. Follow to the specific operating conditions, various choices may be considered.

Apart native the single-component HFC refrigerant R134a, this are mainly blends (different compositions) that the components R32, R125, R134a, R143a, and also R600(a). The following description mainly pertains to the advance and potential applications the these. The halogen-free substitutes NH3, propane and propylene and CO2should also be considered, however, certain criteria need to be used for their use (Halogen totally free (natural) refrigerants).

In addition, R32 and also HFO/HFC blends can likewise be used as options (R32 together substitute for R22and“Low GWP” HFOs and also HFO/HFC blends).

R407C as substitute because that R22

Unlike the substitutes for R22 in refrigeration equipment with identical blend components (R407A/B/F/H as substitutesandR422A together substitute), the substitutes for R22 in air conditioning systems and also heat pumps contain greater proportions that R32 and R134a. A an excellent correspondence with the nature of R22 in terms of press levels, fixed flow, vapour density and volumetric refrigerating volume is therefore achieved. In addition, the an international warming potential is fairly low (GWP = 1774).

Thus, R407C likewise complies through the requirement of the brand-new EU F-Gas Regulation which from 2020 onwards only allows refrigerants through GWP features of zeotropic blends).

Due to the nature mentioned, R407C is preferably an R22 substitute because that air conditioning and heat pump systems and also (within specific limitations) also for tool temperature refrigeration. In short temperature refrigeration, because of the high proportion of R134a, a significant drop in refrigerating capacity and also COP is to be expected. There is likewise the peril of an raised R134a concentration in the blend in evaporators, with reduced performance and malfunctioning the the development valve (e.g. Poor suction gas superheat).

Material compatibility is similar to that of the blends discussed previously; the same applies to lubricants.

* Previous profession names space not used any more.


R407C/R22 – compare of performance data the a semi-hermetic compressor


R407C/R22 – comparison of push levels

Resulting design criteria

With regard to mechanism technology, previous suffer with R22 can only be used to a restricted extent.

The distinctive temperature glide calls for a details design the the key system components, e.g. Evaporator, condenser, development valve. In this context it should be taken into consideration that warmth exchangers must preferably be laid out for counterflow operation and with optimized refrigerant distribution. There are additionally special demands with regard come the adjustment of control devices and service handling.

Furthermore, the usage in systems with submarine evaporators is not recommended together this would an outcome in a serious concentration change and layer formation in the evaporator.

BITZER products for R407C

BITZERcan supply a widespread selection of semi-hermetic reciprocating, screw and also scroll compressors for R407C.

Converting present R22 tree to R407C

Because of the above mentioned criteria, no basic guidelines deserve to be defined. Each situation must be check individually.

R410A as substitute because that R22

In addition to R407C, the near-azeotropic mixture provided by ASHRAE together R410A is obtainable and widely used for medium-sized capacities in air conditioning and also heat pump applications.

An necessary feature indicates practically 50% greater volumetric refrigerating capacity (Comparison of power data) contrasted to R22, yet with the consequence of a proportional increase in mechanism pressures (Comparison of push levels).

At high condensing temperatures, power consumption/COP at first seems come be much less favourable than through R22.

This is mainly due to the thermodynamic properties. On the various other hand, really high isentropic efficiencies room achievable (with reciprocating and also scroll compressors), so the the real distinctions are lower.

Another aspect are the high heat transfer coefficients in evaporators and condensers identified in countless test series, result in especially favourable operating conditions. V an optimized design, the mechanism may achieve a far better overall effectiveness than with other refrigerants.

Because the the negligible temperature glide (


R410A/R22 – comparison of power data of a semi-hermetic compressor


R410A/R22 – to compare of pressure levels

BITZER assets for R417A/417B/422D/438A

BITZERcompressors are an ideal for use v R417A/417B/422D/438A. One individual an option is feasible upon request.

R427A as a substitute because that R22

The R22 substitute is readily available for the switch of existing R22 equipment for i beg your pardon a “zero ODP”solution is requested. That is an HFC mixture v base components R32/R125/R143a/R134a.

In despite the of the mix composition based on pure HFC refrigerants, the manufacturer says that a simplified conversion procedure is possible.

This is helped with by the R143a proportion. Accordingly, once converting from R22 come R427A, all it take away is a instead of of the initial oil charge v ester oil. Additional flushing sequences room not required, together proportions of approximately 15% that mineral oil and/or alkyl benzene have actually no significant effect top top oil circulation in the system.

However, it need to be taken right into account the the extremely polarized mixture of ester oil and HFC will certainly lead to increased dissolving of decomposition products and also dirt in the pipework. Therefore, generously dimensioned suction clean-up filters must be provided.

Regarding refrigerating capacity, pressure levels, fixed flow and also vapor density, R427A is fairly close come R22. During retrofit, essential components such as development valves deserve to remain in the system. Due to the high ratio of blend contents with short adiabatic exponent, the discharge gas temperature is significantly lower than v R22, which has a positive result at high compression ratios.

It need to be taken right into account the this is likewise a zeotropic blend with a distinct temperature glide. As such the criteria defined for R407C apply here as well.

R427A meets the necessity of the EU F-Gas Regulation, i m sorry only permits refrigerants through GWP

Technical details A-540 “Retrofit R22 or R404A/R507A - step by step”

R32 together substitute for R22

As explained earlier, R32 belongs to the HFC refrigerants, however initially the was largely used as a component of refrigerant blends only. An essential barrier for the applications as a pure substance so far is the flammability. This requires adequate charge restrictions and/or added safety measures, particularly with installations inside buildings. In enhancement there are very high push levels and also discharge gas temperature (compression index higher than with R22 and R410A).

On the various other hand, R32 has favorable thermodynamic properties, e.g. Very high evaporating enthalpy and volumetric refrigerating capacity, low vapor thickness (low push drop in pipelines), low mass flow, and also favorable strength input for compression. The global warming potential is reasonably low (GWP = 675).

Looking at this favorable properties and also taking into account the additional effort for emission reductions, R32 will significantly be used as a refrigerant in factory developed systems (A/C units, fluid chillers, warm pumps).

It was proven in flammability tests that the crucial ignition power is really high and also the flame rate is low. Therefore, R32 (like R1234yf and also R1234ze) has actually been put in the brand-new safety team A2L follow to ISO 817.

The resulting safety demands are specified in the revised EN 378 (amended variation 2016).

R32 is additionally considered an alternate for solution with larger refrigerant charge, e.g. Liquid chillers for air air conditioning and process applications and heat pumps previously operated v R410A. However, relying on the installation site of the system, proper refrigerant charge limits must be observed. Top top the other hand, there room no such limitations when set up outdoors (without accessibility to unauthorized persons) and in an equipment rooms (for example, according to EN 378-3: 2016). It have to be noted, however, that R32 pre-charged chillers might be subject to special problems during transport (according to the Pressure tools Directive, R32 is classified under fluid Group 1).

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R32/R410A – comparison of performance and operating data of a scroll compressor

BITZER assets for R32

BITZERscroll compressors that the ORBIT GSD6..AL and GSD8..AL collection have been approved and also released for use v R32.