Amur River, additionally known together Heilong Jiang, is a significant waterway in east Asia and also the world’s 10th longest river. That is China’s third-longest river after Yangtze and Huang Ho and the longest flow flowing with Russian far East. The river starts at the confluence that Argun and Onon-Shilka close to Pokrovka in Russia, then flows east and southeast for approximately 2,824 kilometers before emptying right into the Strait the Tartary. However, the Amur-Argun river device is 4,444 kilometers long, making that Asia’s 4th longest river. Amur forms component of the border between Northeastern China and also Southeast Siberia. The river’s modern-day name (Heilong Jiang) translates to black Dragon River.




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Features the The Amur river

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Cliff Aury top top the Amur flow in the Khabarovsk region of the Russian much East.  The Amur watershed consist of an area of around 1.855 million square kilometers and also drains much of the Russian far East and also Northeastern China. The headwaters increase in cannes Khentii Strictly protected Area (Mongolia), better Khingan in Russia, and Northeastern China. The Amur appropriate flows for around 2,824 kilometers and also drains into the Strait that Tartary close to Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. The discharges an average of 10,739 cubic meters of water per 2nd into the strait and a best of 30,700 cubic meters every second.


The Amur is divided into 3 sections; upper Amur, center Amur, and Lower Amur. The top Amur begins at the confluence that Argun and also Shilka and flows for around 900 kilometers to Zeya’s mouth. The center Amur runs because that 970 kilometers from Zeya come Khabarovsk, while the reduced Amur operation from Khabarovsk come the Strait that Tartary for an additional 970 kilometers. The whole river rises at an elevation of 303 meters and falls come sea level at the mouth.

Course of The Amur river

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Sunset on the embankment that the Amur flow in Khabarovsk. Editorial credit: Dmitrii Rud / Shutterstock.com

Origin

The Amur River starts its flow at the confluence that the Argun and Shilka River, about 2,824 kilometers northwest that its mouth. The Shilka River begins in Siberia at the junction that Onon and Ingoda Rivers, whose sources are in the Khentii Range. Shilka flows for around 560 kilometers before meeting the Argun flow at the Russia-China border. The Argun flow rises in the higher Xing’an selection in within Mongolia, China, around 1,620 kilometers indigenous its junction through the Shilka River. That receives numerous tributaries prior to reaching the China-Russia border, consisting of Gazimur, Uryumkan, and Urov. The Argun runs on the Russia-China border and meets the Shilki close to Pokrovka.

Upper Amur

The Shilka and Argun Rivers confluence at an elevation of 303 meters and also marks the start of the Amur River. The upper Amur flows east on the Russia-China border, then gently bends southeastwards, maintaining its circulation on the border for about 400 kilometers. The river’s upper reaches flow between Amarzar selection and the better Khingan variety and past several towns, receiving water from several tributaries. The Huma He river joins the upper Amur in ~ Huma. Then, the river proceeds southwards, flowing between Heihe (China) and also Blagoveshchensk (Russia). The river widens together it operation south and also receives Zeya near Blagoveshchensk. Zeya at this time contributes 16% of inflow right into the Amur, under from 50% since of the circulation regulations.


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Aerial view of Amur River.

Middle Amur

The Amur-Zeya junction clues the beginning of the middle Amur River. This section very first flows right into the Zeya-Bureya Depression and curves east, then southeast together the river ideologies its confluence through the Bureya River. The river continues south for an additional 250 kilometers without receiving any major tributary, flowing previous the spur that extend from the Bureya Range. Then, that enters a small gorge and flows with Xiao Hinngan Range, wherein its speed and depth increase rapidly. The middle Amur briefly transforms east and also receives Songhua (largest tributary) at Tongjiang, then transforms northeast and also flows in the direction of Khabarovsk, where it receive the Ussuri River.


Lower Amur

At Khabarovsk, the Amur flow is only 370 kilometers northeast that the eastern Sea (Sea that Japan). However, Sikhote-Alin selection diverts the river so the it does no empty right into the east Sea directly. Instead, the Amur flows for another 970 kilometers before draining into the sea via the Strait that Tartary. The reduced Amur leaves the Russia-China border and continues northeast indigenous Khabarovsk. The river’s reduced reaches flow through a wide valley, previous Amursk and Komsomolsk-na-Amure. The river plain narrows close to Komsomolsk-on-Amur and flows for around 145 kilometers v a scenic woodland valley. Climate it flows through the Udil Kizinsky hollow until Bogorodskoye. It emerges from the hollow and also flows top top a low-lying plain, wherein it receives the Amgun, the last major tributary. Then, the lower Amur turns east and enters the strait with the 20-km-long estuary.

Climate

The climate of the Amur basin is influenced by the seasonally alternating monsoon winds and also its northern location. The continental air fixed dominates the river container during polar winter, bring about dry weather and a temperature selection of -20 to -33 levels Celsius. Throughout summer, the river container receives naval air mass, causing the temperature to range between 18 and 22 levels Celsius. The Amur basin receives uneven precipitation. The southern part receives up to 900 mm annually, if the middle section receive a preferably of 600 mm. The western component receives the lowest precipitation, ranging between 300 and also 400 mm.




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Flora and also Fauna the The Amur river

Young kaluga fish (Amur river endemic ). The Amur Basin’s vegetation lies mostly in the Taiga zone, v larch as the most common types in the area. The drier components contain fir, spruce, and also pine, when the eastern portions have actually Amur cork tree and Korean pine. Steppe grassland dominates the west, with conifer and also mixed broad-leaved woodlands are uncovered on the south. The flow itself has over 123 fish species, consisting of 25 types of advertisement value. Many fish species, about 100, are discovered in the lower Amur. This river is residence to some 20 aboriginal broadhead and carp species. Other species include Siberian Salmon, burbot, and the sig, through Kaluga together the biggest species.


Brief background

The Amur basin was originally occupied by several tribes, consisting of Nanai, Buryat, Nivkh, Yakut, Orok, Udegey, and several Machu people. For most of these tribes, the key occupation was fishing and hunting. The Machu human being regarded the river as sacred and also named it “sahaliyan ula,” meaning “Black River.” Russian traders and also explorers began emerging an interest in the area in the 17th century. Russian traveler Vasily Poyarkov discover the basin and the estuary between 1644 and 1647, complied with by Yerofey Khabarov native 1649 come 1651.

The contract of Nerchinsk allocated the entire river basin to China in 1689. Despite the treaty, Russians and also Europeans ongoing to occupy north Amur. By 1860, Russia had taken manage of the land come Ussuri’s east and also Amur’s north. Russian settlers moved into the an ar and constructed cities favor Blagoveshchensk. Russians gradually spread over the basin, through their affect reaching Harbin and also Dalian. The Amur river remains an essential symbol in Russian-Chinese relations, through the river ending up being popular during the Sino-Soviet stress and anxiety of 1956-66.