In a metal, the electrons are considered free because there are more electrons than there should be and also transition metals are willing to accept and give up electrons from their d-orbitals. The d-orbital shell are in a relatively high energy state which means they are loosely bound to the atom where they can freely move around.

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What is the minimum amount of heat required to completely melt 20.0 grams of ice af it"s melting point

1. 58.5°C = Final temperature

2. Mass of water = 30.8g


The general equation of specific heat of a substance is:

Q = C*m*ΔT

Where Q is the heat involved in Joules,

C is specific heat (Water = 4.184J/g°C),

m is mass of substance,

ΔT is change in temperature (Final temperature - Initial temperature)

For the first problem:

1. 195J = 4.184J/g°C*20.0g*ΔT

ΔT = 2.3°C = Final T - Initial T

ΔT = 2.3°C + 56.2°C =

58.5°C = Final temperature

In the seconf problem:

2. 6830J = 4.184J/g°C*m*(98.0°C-45.0°C)

6830J / 4.184J/g°C*53°C = m

30.8g = m

Mass of water = 30.8g

The strongest type of non covalent interaction is between two ionic groups of opposite charge that occur between hydrocarbon is London force.


London dispersion forces:

Weakest inter-molecular forces are the forces that cause non-polar substances to form solids when the temperature is lowered sufficiently. Exist in molecules such as F
, O
, N
and even in mono-atomic molecules He, Ne, Ar, etc.The electron of a neutral molecule keeps on oscillating concerning nuclei of atoms. As a result of an instant, a positive charge may concentrate in one region and a negative charge in another region in the same molecule causing the "self-polarization" of the molecule.This polarized molecule may induce a dipole moment in a neighboring molecule. The second atom can be distorted by the appearance of the dipole in the first atom or molecule resulting in the electrostatic attraction between 2 atoms or molecules.

A rocket with its thruster on is speeding up towards the Moon. Therefore, what type of force is acting on the rocket? ne



If a rocket is at rest or moving at a constant velocity, the forces on it are balanced.

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If the engines are ignited in flight, the thrust from the propellant gases unbalances the forces, and the rocket speeds up.