Functional Groups

A functional group is a certain group of atom within a molecule that is responsible for a characteristic of the molecule. Plenty of jajalger2018.orglogically active molecules save one or more functional groups. In Bis2a we will discuss the significant functional groups discovered in jajalger2018.orglogical molecules. This include: Hydroxyl, Methyl, Carboxyl, Carbonyl, Amino and Phosphate.


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Hydroxyl R-OH

A hydroxyl (alcohol group) is an –OH group covalently bonded to a carbon atom. The oxygen atom is much an ext electronegative than either the hydrogen or the carbon, i beg your pardon will reason the electron in the covalent bonds come spend much more time roughly the oxygen than roughly the C or H. Therefore, the O-H and also O-C bond in the hydroxyl group will be polar covalent bonds. The figure listed below depict the partial charges δ+ and also δ- linked with hydroxyl group.


The hydroxyl useful group shown here is composed of one oxygen atom bound come a carbon atom and a hydrogen atom. These bonds room polar covalent, definition the electron associated in developing the bonds space not shared equally in between the C-O and also O-H bonds. Attribution: developed Marc T. Facciotti (Own work)


The hydroxyl functional teams can type hydrogen bonds, displayed as a dotted line. The hydrogen shortcut will type between the δ- of the oxygen atom and also a δ+ that the hydrogen atom. Dipoles shown in blue arrows. Attribution: Marc T. Facciotti (original work)

Hydroxyl groups are very common in jajalger2018.orglogical molecules. Hydroxyl groups appear on carbohydrates (A), ~ above the R-groups of some amino acids (B), and on main point acids (C). Deserve to you find any kind of hydroxyl teams in the phospholipid in (D)?

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The amine functional team can exist in a deprotonated or protonated state.

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Once protonated the nitrogen atom is tied to three hydrogen atoms and also has a positive charge. The deprotonated type of this team is neutral.Attribution: created Erin Easlon (Own work)