l>Carl LinnaeusCarl Linnaeus (1707-1778)Carl Linnaeus, also known together Carl von Linné or Carolus Linnaeus, is often dubbed the father of Taxonomy. His mechanism for naming, ranking, and classifying organisms is tho in broad use now (with numerous changes). Hisideas on category have affected generations of biologist duringand ~ his own lifetime, also those opposed to the philosophicaland theological roots of his work.Biography the LinnaeusHe to be born on may 23, 1707, in ~ Stenbrohult, in the province ofSmåland in southerly Sweden. His father,Nils Ingemarsson Linnaeus, to be both one avid gardener and a Lutheran pastor,and Carl verified a deep love of plants and a fascination with their names indigenous avery early on age. Carl disappointed his parents by mirroring neither aptitude nordesire because that the priesthood, however his family was rather consoled whenLinnaeus gone into the university of Lund in 1727 to study medicine. A yearlater, he transferred to the university of Uppsala, the many prestigiousuniversity in Sweden. However, its medical facilities had been neglected andhad fallen into disrepair. Most of Linaeus"s time in ~ Uppsala to be spentcollecting and studying plants, his true love. At the time, maintain inbotany was component of the medical curriculum, because that every doctor had actually toprepare and also prescribe drugs acquired from medicine plants. Despite being inhard jae won straits, Linnaeus placed a botanical and ethnographical exploration to Lapland in 1731 (the portrait over showsLinnaeus as a young man, attract a variation of the traditional Lappcostume and also holding a shaman"s drum). In 1734 he placed another exploration to main Sweden. Linnaeus checked out the Netherlands in 1735, promptly finished his medical degree at theUniversity of Harderwijk, and also then enrolled in the college of Leiden forfurther studies. That same year, he released the very first edition the hisclassification of living things, the Systema Naturae. During theseyears, that met or corresponded with Europe"s great botanists, and also continuedto construct his group scheme. Returning to Sweden in 1738, the practicedmedicine (specializing in the therapy of syphilis) and also lectured in Stockholm before being awarded a professorship in ~ Uppsala in 1741. In ~ Uppsala, he revived the University"s factory garden (arranging the plants according to his mechanism of classification), made three more expeditions to assorted parts that Sweden, and inspired a generation that students. He to be instrumentalin arranging to have actually his students sent out on trade and also exploration voyages to all components of the world: nineteen that Linnaeus"s college student went out on these voyages of discovery. Possibly his most renowned student, Daniel Solander, to be the naturalist onCaptain James Cook"s first round-the-world voyage, and also brought earlier the an initial plant collections from Australia and also the south Pacific to Europe. Anders Sparrman,another of Linnaeus"s students, was a botanist on Cook"s 2nd voyage. Another student, Pehr Kalm, traveled in the northeastern American colonies for 3 years studying American plants.Yet another, Carl Peter Thunberg, to be the an initial Western naturalist to visit Japan in end a century; that not just studied the flora that Japan, however taught west medicineto Japanese practicioners. Still rather of his students travel to southern America, south east Asia, Africa, and also the middle East. Plenty of died on your travels.
Linnaeus ongoing to revise his Systema Naturae, which prospered from a slim pamphlet to a multivolume work, together his ideas were modified and also as much more and much more plant and also animal specimens were sent out to the from every corner of the globe.(The picture at right mirrors his scientific description of the human species from the 9th edition of Systema Naturae. At the moment he referred to humankind as Homo diurnis, or "man that the day". Click on the photo to watch an enlargement.) Linnaeus was additionally deeply affiliated with methods to do the sweden economy much more self-sufficient and less dependence on international trade, one of two people by acclimatizing valuable plantsto grow in Sweden, or by finding indigenous substitutes. Unfortunately, Linnaeus"sattempts to prosper cacao, coffee, tea, bananas, rice, and mulberries proved unsuccessfulin Sweden"s cold climate. His do the efforts to an increase the economy (and to prevent the faminesthat tho struck Sweden at the time) through finding aboriginal Swedish tree that could beused together tea, coffee, flour, and fodder were likewise not typically successful. That still discovered time to practice medicine, eventuallybecoming an individual physician come the Swedish royal family. In 1758 that bought the manor legacy of Hammarby, external Uppsala, where he built a smallmuseum because that his extensive an individual collections. In 1761 the wasgranted nobility, and became Carl von Linné. His later years weremarked by enhancing depression and pessimism. Lingering on for several yearsafter enduring what was probably a collection of gentle strokes in 1774, he passed away in 1778. His son, likewise named Carl, prospered to his professorship in ~ Uppsala, yet never was significant as a botanist. When Carl the Younger died five years later on with noheirs, his mother and also sisters sold the elder Linnaeus"s library, manuscripts, andnatural background collections to the English natural historian teacher James Edward Smith,who established the Linnean culture of London come take care of them.Linnaeus"s scientific ThoughtLinnaeus loved nature deeply, and always retained a feeling of wonder at the world of livingthings. His religious beliefs led the to organic theology, a school of thoughtdating earlier to Biblical times but especially flourishing roughly 1700:since God has produced the world, that is possible to understand God"s wisdom bystudying His creation. As he created in thepreface to a so late edition of Systema Naturae: Creationis telluris estgloria Dei ex opere Naturae every Hominem solum -- The Earth"s creation isthe glory of God, as viewed from the functions of Nature by guy alone. The research of nature would expose the magnificent Order ofGod"s creation, and it to be the naturalist"s job to build a "naturalclassification" the would reveal this order in the universe. However, Linnaeus"s tree taxonomy to be based solely on the number and arrangement that the reproductive organs; a plant"s course was identified by itsstamens (male organs), and its order by the pistils (female organs). This resulted inmany groupings that appeared unnatural. Because that instance, Linnaeus"s course Monoecia,Order Monadelphia included plants with different male and female "flowers" on thesame plant (Monoecia) and also with multiple male organs join onto onecommon basic (Monadelphia). This order included conifers such as pines, firs, and cypresses (the distinction between true flowers and conifer cones was not clear), but additionally included a few true flowering plants, such together the castor bean. "Plants"without evident sex organs were classified in the class Cryptogamia, or "plants with a surprise marriage," i beg your pardon lumped with each other the algae, lichens, fungi, mosses and also other bryophytes, and ferns. Linnaeus openly admitted that this created an "artificialclassification," no a natural one, which would take right into account every thesimilarities and also differences between organisms. Yet like countless naturalists ofthe time, in details Erasmus Darwin,Linnaeus attached great significance come plant sex-related reproduction, i beg your pardon hadonly freshly been rediscovered. Linnaeus drew some rather astonishingparallels between plant sexuality and human love: he wrote in 1729 howThe flowers" leaves. . . Offer as bridal beds which the Creator has actually sogloriously arranged, adorned through such noble bed curtains, and perfumed through so numerous soft scents that the bridegroom through his bride could therecelebrate their nuptials v so much the greater solemnity. . . The sexual basis that Linnaeus"s plant category was controversial in the day;although basic to learn and also use, it plainly did not give good results in plenty of cases.Some critics additionally attacked it because that its sexually clear nature: one opponent, botanistJohann Siegesbeck, called it "loathsome harlotry". (Linnaeus had actually his revenge,however; he called a small, useless european weed Siegesbeckia.) later systems of group largely followJohn Ray"s practiceof utilizing morphological evidence from all parts of the organism in allstages that its development. What has survived that the Linnean device is itsmethod of ordered classification and custom the binomial nomenclature.For Linnaeus, varieties of organisms were realentities, which could be group into greater categories dubbed genera
(singular, genus). By itself, this was nothing new; since Aristotle,biologists had used the word genus because that a group of similar organisms, and also thensought to define the differentio specifica -- the particular differenceof each kind of organism. But opinion varied on exactly how genera have to begrouped. Naturalists of the day regularly used arbitrary criteria to group organisms, placingall domestic animals or all water pets together. Part of Linnaeus"innovation was the grouping of genera into higher taxa the were additionally based onshared similarities. In Linnaeus"s initial system, genera were grouped intoorders, orders into classes, and also classes right into kingdoms. Therefore the kingdomAnimalia consisted of the class Vertebrata, which had the stimulate Primates,which had the genus Homo through the varieties sapiens --humanity. Later on biologists added additional ranks between these to expressadditional levels of similarity.Before Linnaeus, types naming methods varied. Manybiologists provided the species they defined long, unwieldy Latin names,which can be changed at will; a scientist comparing 2 descriptions ofspecies could not be able to tell i beg your pardon organisms were being advert to.For instance, the typical wild briar climbed was referred to by differentbotanists together Rosa sylvestris inodora seu canina and also asRosa sylvestris alba cum rubore, folio glabro.The need for a workable naming device was made also greater by the hugenumber the plants and also animals that were being brought back to Europe fromAsia, Africa, and also the Americas. After experimenting with miscellaneous alternatives,Linnaeus streamlined naming extremely by designating one Latin name to indicatethe genus, and one together a "shorthand" name for the species. The 2 names makeup the binomial ("two names") varieties name. Forinstance, in his two-volume work types Plantarum (The varieties ofPlants), Linnaeus renamed the briar increased Rosa canina.This binomial device rapidly ended up being the standard device for naming species.Zoological and most factory taxonomic priority start with Linnaeus: theoldest plant names welcomed as precious today space those released in SpeciesPlantarum, in 1753, when the oldest pet names space those in the tenthedition that Systema Naturae (1758), the an initial edition to usethe binomial system consistently throughout. Back Linnaeus was not the first to usage binomials, he was the an initial to usage them consistently, and also for this reason, Latin names that naturalists used prior to Linnaeus are not usually considered valid under the rules of nomenclature.In his at an early stage years, Linnaeus thought that the species was not just real,but unchangeable -- as he wrote, Unitas in omni specie ordinem ducit(The invariability of types is the condition for stimulate ). ButLinnaeus observed just how different types of plant might hybridize, come createforms which looked like new species. He exit the principle that specieswere fixed and also invariable, and also suggested that part -- perhaps many --species in a genus could have emerged after the creation of the world, v hybridization. In his do the efforts to flourish foreign tree in Sweden, Linnaeus additionally theorized that plant varieties might be changed through the processof acclimitization. In the direction of the finish of his life, Linnaeus investigatedwhat he believed were instances of crosses in between genera, and also suggested that,perhaps, brand-new genera might likewise arise with hybridization.Was Linnaeus one evolutionist? that is true that he exit his earlierbelief in the fixity the species, and it is true the hybridization has actually producednew species of plants, and in some situations of animals. Yet to Linnaeus,the process of generating new species was no open-ended and also unlimited.Whatever brand-new species might have occurred from the primae speciei, the original species in the Garden that Eden, to be still part ofGod"s setup for creation, for they had always potentially to be present.Linnaeus noticed the battle for survival -- the once referred to as Nature a"butcher"s block" and also a "war of all versus all". However, he thought about struggle and competition necessary to maintain the balanceof nature, part of the divine Order. The ide of open-ended evolution, notnecessarily administrate by a divine Plan and with no predetermined goal, neveroccurred come Linnaeus; the idea would have actually shocked him. Nevertheless, Linnaeus"s ordered classification and also binomial nomenclature,much modified, have actually remained standard for end 200 years. Hiswritings have actually been learned by every generation that naturalists, includingErasmus Darwinand Charles Darwin. The search for a "natural system" of classificationis quiet going ~ above -- other than that what systematists try to discover and also useas the communication of classification is currently the evolutionary relationship of taxa.The Linné Herbarium, at theSwedish Museum of herbal History,preserves few of Linnaeus"s initial plant specimens. The Museum likewise hasan excellent, detailed biography ofLinnaeus. You can likewise view Linnaeus"sbotanical garden and Linnaeus"s manor homeand garden at Hamarby, courtesy the UppsalaUniversity, Linnaeus"s alma mater. Uppsala University additionally maintainsLinné top top Line, a wealthy sourceof information on Linnaeus and also his times (for those who can read Swedish). Established a couple of years ~ Linnaeus"s death, the Linnaean culture of London is quiet going solid as one international society for the examine of organic history. The culture preserves the bulk of Linnaeus"s surviving collections, manuscripts, and library. The Strandell repertoire of Linneana, at Carnegie-Mellon University, and also the Mackenzie Linneana repertoire at Kansas State University, are significant American collections of writings by and about Linnaeus and also his associates.

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The Linnaeus link at the brothers Natural history Museum, intends to make accessible electronic versions of Linnaeus"s writings and also documents.