Alternate titles: Brønsted–Lowry definition, acids and also bases, proton theory of, proton concept of acids and also bases
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Key People:Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted...(Show more)Related Topics:acidionic acidproton donorproton acceptorconjugate acid-base pair...(Show more)

Brønsted-Lowry theory, also called proton concept of acids and also bases, a theory, introduced independently in 1923 by the Danish chemist johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and the English chemist thomas Martin Lowry, stating that any compound that can transfer a proton to any other link is an acid, and also the compound the accepts the proton is a base. A proton is a nuclear bit with a unit positive electrical charge; that is stood for by the symbol H+ because it constitutes the cell nucleus of a hydrogen atom.


Overview of 3 theories that acids and bases: Arrhenius theory, Brønsted-Lowry theory, and also Lewis theory.

according to the Brønsted-Lowry system a substance can duty as an acid only in the presence of a base; similarly, a substance can function as a base only in the existence of one acid. Furthermore, once an acidic substance loses a proton, it develops a base, called the conjugate basic of one acid, and when a an easy substance profit a proton, it forms an acid called the conjugate mountain of a base. Thus, the reaction between an acidic substance, such together hydrochloric acid, and a straightforward substance, such as ammonia, may be represented by the equation:

In order to solve the various obstacles in the hydrogen–hydroxide ion definitions of acids and also bases, a new, more generalized definition...


In the equation the ammonium ion (NH+4 ) is the mountain conjugate come the base ammonia, and the chloride ion (Cl-) is the base conjugate come hydrochloric acid.

The Brønsted-Lowry theory enlarges the number of compounds considered to be acids and also bases to incorporate not just the neutral molecule (e.g., sulfuric, nitric, and also acetic acids, and also the alkali steel hydroxides) but also details atoms and molecules with hopeful and an adverse electrical fees (cations and also anions). The ammonium ion, the hydronium ion, and some hydrated steel cations are thought about acids. The acetate, phosphate, carbonate, sulfide, and also halogen ion are thought about bases.

The editors of Encyclopaedia jajalger2018.orgThis short article was many recently revised and updated through Erik Gregersen, an elderly Editor.

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