Symbiosis is a hatchet describing any relationship or interaction between two dissimilar organisms. The particular kind of synergy depends ~ above whether one of two people or both organisms advantage from the relationship.
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Planet earth is lived in by numerous species—at least! since different types often inhabit the exact same spaces and share—or compete for—the exact same resources, they interact in a range of ways, known jointly as symbiosis. There are five main symbiotic relationships: mutualism, commensalism, predation, parasitism, and competition.
To discover these relationships, let’s take into consideration a herbal ecosystem such as the ocean. Oceanic settings are known for their types diversity. Imagine you are on a diving exploration to discover the human beings beneath the waves. If we were in the warmth waters of the Pacific or Indian Oceans, we’d likely spot great example of mutualism: the relationship between clownfish and also sea anemones. In a mutualistic relationship, both varieties benefit. Sea anemones live attached come the surface ar of coral reefs. They trap their prey v stinging cells called nematocysts, which are situated on your tentacles. Nematocysts relax toxins when a small animal contact an anemone’s tentacle. This paralyzes the stung animal, permitting the anemone to easily lug the animal into the mouth for ingestion.
While various other fish succumb to these toxicity stings, clownfish secrete a problem in the mucus covering their bodies that suppresses the firing of nematocysts. This enables the clownfish come swim comfortably in between the tentacles the anemones, developing a protected environment in i beg your pardon potential predators are killed off through anemone stings. This clearly benefits the clownfish, however how around the sea anemones? The brightly-colored clownfish lure other fish in search of a meal. These unsuspecting would-be predators room then caught and also eaten by the anemones.
As we continue in our imagine deep-sea voyage, we might observe the commensalistic partnership that exists in between barnacles and also humpback whales. Commensalism happens as soon as one types lives with, on, or in one more species, known as the host. The host varieties neither services nor is harmed native the relationship. In our imagine example, various species of barnacles affix themselves come the skin that whales. Scientists have actually not found the precise mechanism whereby barnacles are able to do this, but it does not appear to bother the whales. How do the barnacles benefit from this i can not qualify relationship? The vast whales move the small barnacles come plankton-rich waters, where both species feast ~ above the plentiful microorganisms that live there.
Of course, some symbiotic relationships do reason harm. In predation, one species (the predator) hunts and kills another species (the prey). Among the better studied predators in the seas is the orca, or killer whale. Found in every ocean on Earth, orcas room categorized as apex predators. Despite they hunt and eat plenty of other organisms—over 140 species—orcas themselves room not hunted by any kind of other predator. In various other words, they space at the top of the food chain!
Another harmful partnership is parasitism. This happens as soon as one varieties (the parasite) stays with, on, or in a hold species, at the price of the hold species. Unequal in predation, the organize is not automatically killed by the parasite, though it might sicken and also die end time. Instances of common parasites uncovered in the ocean include nematodes, leeches, and also barnacles. That’s right—though barnacles exist commensally through whales, they room parasites for swim crabs. A barnacle might root itself in ~ a crab’s reproductive system. If the crab does no die native this interaction, the reproductive capability are substantially diminished.
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The last instance of symbiosis we will explore on our imaginary dive is competition—the struggle amongst organisms because that the same minimal resources in one ecosystem. Competition deserve to happen in between members that the same species (intraspecific competition) and between different varieties (interspecific competition). An example of interspecific vain in the ocean is the relationship in between corals and sponges. Sponges are really abundant in coral reefs. If they come to be too successful, however, lock take needed food and other sources from the corals that comprise the reef. Sponges might outcompete corals for sources in the brief term, but if too countless corals die, the reef itself becomes damaged. This is negative for the sponges, which might themselves begin to die off till the reef is balanced again.
Symbiotic relationships can be beneficial measures of an ecosystem’s health. For example, large tracts the coral reefs are severely damaged or dead since of recent boosts in ocean temperature as result of climate change. The temperature rise induces coral to expel the birds that live mutualistically within them. Without their algae, the coral turn white and also die. This lose of synergy is very early sign of decreasing coral health and also speaks to the prominence not just of studying synergy within marine environments, but likewise of evaluating the an unfavorable impacts that humans deserve to have on this interactions. In the indigenous of national Geographic traveler Sylvia Earle: “We need to respect the oceans and also take care of them together if ours lives rely on it. Due to the fact that they do.”